Tampilkan postingan dengan label History In English. Tampilkan semua postingan
Tampilkan postingan dengan label History In English. Tampilkan semua postingan

Senin, 23 Mei 2011

Swimming has been known sejah pre-historic era. From the pictures that come from the stone age of the caves known to the swimmers near Wadi Sora in the southwestern Egypt. In Japan, swimming is the ability to be possessed by the samurai. History records, the first pool match was held by Emperor Suigui in 36 BC.

Pool game that the title has been started in Europe around the year 1800 and mostly using breaststroke. Swimming freestyle first introduced by Arthur Trudgen. This force then began to be combined with style leg kick by Richard Cavill in 1902. In medieval times, pools are included in the seven skills that must be owned by the knights, including swimming with a gun.

Sports pool was first contested in modern Olympics 1896 in Athens, Greece. At these Olympics, only four numbers that are competed from the original plan of six numbers. Each of these is the 100 meters, 500 meters, 1,200 meters, free numbers, and 100 meters for sailors. Second Olympics held in Paris, France in 1900 and compare the 200 m, 1,000 m, 4,000 m, free number, 200 m breaststroke, and 200 m team numbers.

International Swimming Union (Federation Internationale de Natation de Amateur / FINA) was formed in 1908 originally set, butterfly style is a variation of breaststroke. This new style became a separate style in 1952. Women allowed to join the new pool match at the Olympic Games 1912 in Stockholm, the Netherlands.

Freestyle, which was then called the trudgen, introduced in 1973 by John Arthur Trudgen, imitate the original Americans. Swimming was part of the first modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896. In 1902 the trudgen updated by Richard Cavill, using the jolt shook. In 1908, the world swimming association, the International Amateur Swimming Federation (FINA / Federation Internationale de Natation de Amateur) is formed. Butterfly style first is a variation of breaststroke, until finally he was accepted as a separate style in 1952.

Modern Olympic Era after 1896

Olympic Games held in 1896 in Athens. Specific competition of men (see also swimming in the summer Olympics in 1896). Six games were planned, but only four actually held: 100 m, 500 m and 1200 m freestyle and 100 m for sailors. The first gold medal was won by Alfred Hajos of Hungary with a record time of 1:22:20 for the 100 m freestyle.

Hajos also won the match 1200 m, and unable to win it at 500 m, which was won by Paul Neumann of Australia. Another swimming competition of 100m for sailors included three Greek sailors in the Bay of Zea near Piraeus, starting with a boat oar. The winner was Ioannis Malokinis with a record time of two minutes and 20 seconds. 1500 m race was also held.

In 1897 Capt. Henry Sheffield makes cans rescuer or rescuer-cylinder, now known as aids rescuers in Baywatch. Edges make it glide faster on the water, although it can cause injury. The second Olympic Games held in Paris in 1900 featuring 200 m, 1000 m and 4000 m freestyle, 200 m backstroke, and 200 m race team (see also Swimming at the Summer Olympics in 1900).

There were two additional unusual swimming match (although it is quite common at the time), implementation constraints swimming in the Seine river (swimming with the flow), and the race swimming in the water. What style of 4000 m was won by John Arthur Jarvis with a record time of under one hour, the longest Olympic swimming perlombangan ever held. Backstroke was also introduced to the Olympic Games in Paris, as well as with water polo. Osborne Swimming Club from Manchester beat club teams from Belgium, France and Germany with very easily.

Trudgen style developed by teachers pool and English descent named Australian swimmer Richard (Fred, Frederick) Cabill. As Trudgen, he noticed the natives of the Solomons, using freestyle. But unlike Trudgen, he saw the kick fluttering, and studied it carefully. He uses this new surge wag of the breaststroke kick or cut from Trudgen.

He uses this movement in 1902 in the International Championship in England to create a new world record by swimming outside force that carried out by all the swimmers Trudgen at 100 yards with a record time of 0:58.4 (some sources say that it was his son in a record time 0 : 58.8). he taught this style to six children, each swimmer will be a championship.

Technique became known as freestyle Australia until 1950, when he shortened to just freestyle, technically known as front crawl. Olympic Games 1904 in St. Louis included races 50 yards, 100 yards, 220 yards, 440 yards, 880 yards and one mile freestyle, 100-yard backstroke and 440-yard breaststroke, and 4 * 50-yard freestyle relay (also see the summer Olympic swimming in 1904 .)

The contest is to distinguish between the breaststroke with the freestyle, so now there are two styles specified (breaststroke and backstroke) and freestyle, where most people swim with style Trudgen. It also describes the race for the long jump competition, where the distance without swimming, after jumping into the swimming pool is measured.

In 1907 the swimmer Annette Kellerman from Australia visited the United States as an "underwater ballerina", another version of the alignment of swimming, diving into glass tanks. He was arrested for exposing things that are not polite, in which bathing suit to show the arms, legs and neck.

Kellerman changed bathing into a long-sleeved shirt, pants that are longer, and the collar, while still maintaining the tight clothes that reveal body shape underneath. He later starred in several films, one about her personal life. In 1908, the world swimming association of the International Amateur Swimming Federation (FINA / Federation Internationale de Natation de Amateur) is formed.

Along with the development of outdoor sports, swimming increasingly popular. Growing pool of fans. In fact, often the children are taught swimming at a very early age.

Kamis, 17 Februari 2011

Google is a company's most famous United States through its search engine which is also called Google.

Company
Google Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG) was established on September 7, 1998 at their friend's garage space in Menlo Park, California. In February 1999, the company moved into offices at 165 University Ave., Palo Alto, Calif., before moving to the "Googleplex" at the end of the year.

Search engines
Google is a search engine on the Internet, based in the United States. Google is one of the most popular search engine on the web and receive at least 200 million search queries each day through its Web site and client web sites such as America Online (AOL). Google's headquarters is located (the "Googleplex") in Mountain View, California.

History

Google started two Ph.D. student research projects Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin in early 1996 which developed the theory that a search engine based on mathematical analysis of relationships between Web sites would give better results than by using basic search techniques used at that time. This system was originally called BackRub because it uses backlinks to estimate a site's importance.

Convinced that the pages with the most links to that page from the pages of other relevant web pages that are most relevant, Page and Brin decided to test their thesis as part of their studies - this becomes the foundation for their search engine. They officially formed their company Google Inc. on September 7, 1998.

Google became popular among Internet users because its design is simple and 'clean' and relevant search results. Ads sold by keyword (keyword) so that they become more relevant for users, and the ads are required to use the text-only fixed page design for neat and remains the page loading speed. The concept of selling ads based on keyword preceded by Overture, formerly called GoTo.com. At a time when most other dotcom companies went bankrupt, Google quietly strengthen its influence and gain profit.

In September 2001, Google's ranking mechanism (PageRank) was granted the right U.S. patent. The patent was officially granted to the Leland Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor.

In February 2003, Google bought Pyra Labs, owner of Blogger, a pioneer and leader web site hosting weblogs. This acquisition seemed inconsistent with Google's general mission, but this step makes Google may use information from blog postings to improve the speed and relevance of the articles in Google News.

At the height of glory in early 2004, Google take care of almost 80 percent of all search queries on the Internet through its website and clients like Yahoo, AOL and CNN. Google's share dropped from Google's search technology Yahoo! release in February 2004 in order to use their independent search results.

Other Essay Concerning the History of Google.

Google ...

unique name, unique history

Who does not know with Google. For all the surfers of cyber world must have been very familiar with google this. Google is very popular with search engines in cyberspace jungle. All you need do is just typing the desired password then google will track and looking for any information desired.

Google with two "o" was unique, because if the data search results are found, the number of "o" will appear as much as that obtained by the Web search engine.

Google the word comes from the word Googlo. The word was invented by Milton Sirotta, nephew of a mathematician Edward Kasner of the U.S.. Sirotta make the term Googlo to mention the number 1 (one) followed 100 points 0 (zero), therefore the use of the word Google is a reflection of the word Googlo.

But them know you are, Google is not only unique from the home he said. Google also has a unique historical background. Google was born of a meeting of two young men who happen by accident in 1995 ago. Larry Page, an alumnus of the University of Michigan, who was enjoying a weekend visit, accidentally met with Sergey Brin, one of the students who obtained escort duties around Lary.

In a meeting earlier accident, the two Google founders are often involved lengthy discussions. Both have different opinions and views that are often involved debate. However, differences in their thinking would produce a unique approach in solving one of the biggest challenges in the computer world. Namely, the problem of how to recover data from massive data sets.

In January 1996, Larry and Sergey began to collaborate in making search engine called BackRub. A year later, their unique approach of network analysis the reputation BackRub. The news about new techniques search engine immediately spread to all corners of campus.

Larry and Sergey continues to improve Google technologies throughout early 1998. Both also began looking for investors to develop the sophistication of Google's technology.

Scoop was intercepted. They receive an injection of funds from the Friends campus, Andy Bechtolsheim, a founder of Sun Microsystems. Pertemuana they occur in the early morning on the porch of the Stanford faculty student dormitory, in Palo Alto. Larry and Sergey gave a brief demo because Andy did not have a long time.

Through the demo that Andy agreed to provide funding assistance in the form of a check for $ 100 thousand dollars. Unfortunately, the check was written on behalf of Google. And then a company called Google has not been established by Sergey and Larry.

Investment by Andy into a dilemma. Larry and Sergey can not compose poem checks before there is a legal institution called the company Google. Therefore, the two founders of Google is again working hard in search of investment. They are looking for funders from among family, friends, and colleagues collected funds until around 1 million dollars. And finally, the company Google also can be established on 7 Septembar 1998 and officially opened in Menlo Park, California.

Google's mission is "to gather the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful." Google's philosophy includes slogans such as "Don` t be evil ", and" Work should menatang and the challenge should be fun ", describe a relaxed corporate culture.

Currently Google is a company predicated number one in the top 100 companies are the most popular in America, with a total staff of about 10 thousand people.

Rabu, 16 Februari 2011

Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson) (OMX: Eric B, NASDAQ: ERIC), one of the largest companies in Sweden, Ericsson is a leading provider of telecommunications and data communications systems, and related services, which include a variety of technologies, including in particular the cellular network. And indirectly through its subsidiaries, which also has an important role in mobile devices, and cable television and IPTV.

Founded in 1876 as a store of equipment for repair by telegram Lars Magnus Ericsson, entered August 18, 1918. Based in the cyst, the City of Stockholm, since 2003, LM Ericsson is considered part of the so-called "Wireless Valley". Since the mid-1990s, Ericsson is very broad in Stockholm contributed to transform the capital into one of the research centers of information technology (IT) in Europe. Ericsson has offices and operations in more than 150 countries, with over 20,000 employees in Sweden, and also a significant presence, for example, China, Britain, United States, Finland, Ireland and Brazil.

Standing HISTORY

Lars Magnus Ericsson started with a phone in youth associations as an instrument maker. He worked for a company that makes equipment for firms telegram Telegrafverket Sweden. In 1876, at age 30, began the construction of a telegraph repair shop with the help of his friend Carl Johan Andersson. Shops in central Stockholm (No. 15 on Drottninggatan, the main shopping street) and improve your mobile phone abroad. In 1878 Ericsson began making and selling its own phone equipment. The phone is not technically innovative, as most were made by other factories in the United States. In 1878, he made a joint agreement to provide telephone and providing frameworks for the first telecommunications company in Sweden, Stockholm Allm�nna Telefonaktiebolag.

Also in 1878, local importers Ericsson phone Numa Peterson assumed to adjust some of the Bell Telephone Company.Dari here he was inspired to buy a Siemens mobile phone and further analysis of the technology. (Ericsson Siemens had received scholarships in previous years.) Being a company that works to repair and trains Telegrafverket Sweden (Swedish Railway), you are familiar with Bell and Siemens Halske telephone. He is improving the design to produce an instrument of superior quality. At the end of 'year he began the manufacture of the phone, a lot of pictures of the Siemens mobile phone, and the first product that was completed in 1879.

With a reputation that has taken hold, Ericsson is a major supplier of telephone equipment in Scandinavia. Because factories can not keep up with demand, works like wood and metal-plating was contracted out. Many of these imported materials, so that in the next decade Ericsson purchased in a number of companies to ensure essential supplies such as brass, steel wire and hard rubber.

The high price of equipment and services that led Bell Henrik Tore Cedergren to form an independent company in 1883, telephone call Stockholm Allm�nna Telefonaktiebolag. Like Bell does not provide facilities to its competitors, has signed an agreement with Ericsson, who delivered the material for a new telephone network. In 1918 the company joined Ericsson Allm�nna Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson.

In 1884, an engineer named Anton Aven in Stockholm Per Year Telefonaktiebolag earphones are fused and spokesman for the (then) in standard telephone handset.Ericsson take these results and incorporated into products from Ericsson, which begins with a phone called the dachshund.

International expansion

As production grew at the end of 1890, and the Swedish market seems to be reaching saturation point, Ericsson was able to expand into foreign markets through a series of agents. Britain and Russia are starting to market Ericsson. This eventually led to the establishment of factories in these countries. This is partly to improve opportunities for local contracts, and partly because the factory in Sweden to maintain supply. In England, the National Telephone Company (National Telephone Company) have included Ericsson equipment for some time and is a customer utama.Pada 1897, the UK has contributed 28% of sales were other subscribers Ericsson.Negara Ericsson also pushed by rapid growth of telephone service in Sweden. Australia and New Zealand, at the end of 1890 was the largest market for Ericsson in Europe.

Even if they are successful in other places, Ericsson does not make significant sales in the United States. The group of Bell and local companies, such as Kellogg and Automatic Electric had already dominated the market. In contrast, sales in Mexico quite well and lead to further development in the countries of South America. South Africa and China also produce significant sales. With multinational companies now, and well developed, Lars Ericsson has resigned from the company in 1901.

Selasa, 15 Februari 2011

Volleyball game, volleyball invented by William G. Morgan in 1985. he was a physical education coach at the Young Men Christian Association (YMCA) in the city of Holyoke, Massachusetts, AmerikaSerikat. The name of the game in the beginning called "Minonette" is almost similar to badminton game. Number of players here is not limited in accordance with its original purpose, namely to develop physical fitness workers do physical exercises in addition to the missal. William G. Morgan later continue his idea to develop the game in order to reach the sport that competed.

The name of the game then became "volley ball, which means more or less made volibola
Volleyball game entered the official events in PON II, 1951 in Jakarta and Yogyakarta POM I in 1951. after 1962, the development of volleyball bnola like mushrooms grow in the rainy season the number of volleyball clubs in all corners of the country.

This is evident also with the participant data match in the national championship. PON and other sporting parties, where the figures show an increase in number. It may be said to date a volleyball game in Indonesia ranks third after football and badminton.

For the first time in history volley ball Indonesia, PBVSI been able to send Indonesian junior volleyball team to the World Championships in Athens Greece that runs from 3-12 September 1989. junior men's volleyball team is coached by Yano Indonesia Hadian Kanwar assisted by trainers, and coaches from Japan Hideto Nishioka, whereas physical trainer handed over to Engkos Kosasih from the field of coaching PKON (national sports health center) OFFICE Menpora. In men's volleyball world championship, as the winner is:

* The Soviet Union
* Cuba
* Japanese
* Greece
* Brazil
* Poland
* Bulagaria

While new to Indonesia's own ranks to 15.
In the period under the leadership of General chairman PBVSI General (Pol) Drs. Mochamad Sanusi, perbolavolian increasing both the number of existing associations and of the smooth system of competition that took place,; up to activities conducted both inside and outside the country.

Demonstration game hosted by both teams, as well as explanations that have been submitted by the Morgan-have also brought a change in Mintonette. The first change that happened in the game came on his name. At the suggestion of Professor Alfred T. Halstead is also watching and paying attention to demonstration and explanation of Morgan, the name was changed to Mintonette-Volleyball (volleyball). Selection of Volleyball as a substitute name-even Mintonette not done without consideration.

Volleyball The name was chosen based on the major movements contained in that game, the movement hit the ball before the ball fell to the ground (volleyball). At first, the name was spelled-Volleyball separately (two words), namely "Volley Ball." Then in 1952, the Administrative Committee USVBA (United States Volleyball Association) chose to spell the name in one word, namely "Volleyball". USVBA volleyball is a sport of unity contained in the United States. This association was first established in 1928, and currently USVBA better known by the name of USAV (USA Voleyball). After the demonstration, the YMCA committee promised to learn the rules of the game that has been written and submitted by Morgan.

Senin, 14 Februari 2011

The Maya are a group of tribes who lived in the Yucatan peninsula, Central America, bordering the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the Caribbean Sea to the east.

Stone Age tribes in achieving greatness in the field of technology (250 AD to 925 AD), resulting in a unique form of work and civilization such as buildings (Chichen Itza), agriculture (drainage canals), maize and latex, the well, called "cenotes".

The way they communicate and document the writings: His writing using pictures and symbols, called "glyphs". There are two kinds of glyphs: namely that displays the whole image of the object intended, and the type that describes something in accordance with the tribe said.

For example the word "balam: jaguar", depicted with animal heads, or with three syllables "ba" - "la" - "ma" which consists of three pictures a kind of cup / shell.

This tribe is also known beauty person, by making a flat cranium, by tying boards on the forehead and the back shell on infant / child birth, so that by the time they are adults feel elegant by having a flat forehead bone.

The weapon used is called "Atlatl", which is a kind of bow and arrow.
Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) Is a Japanese company specializing in the field of optics and image. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measuring instruments. The company was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kogaku Kogyo (?? ?? ?? ????), later renamed (???? ???), on behalf of his camera, in 1988. In 2002, it has 14,000 workers. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.

Famous products are Nikkor camera lenses, Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F series professional cameras, and digital cameras Nikon D-series.

Nikon's main rivals, including Canon, Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.

Nikon Corporation was founded on July 25, 1917 when three leading optical manufacturers merged to form a company, comprehensive, integrated optics, known as Nippon Kogaku KK Tokyo Over the next sixty years, this company developed into a manufacturer of optical lenses (including for the first Canon camera) and equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to nineteen factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights, and the periscope with the Japanese military.


1917.
Nippon Kogaku K.K., or Japan Optical Co.. established as a result of a merger of three smaller optical firms. They produce products such as optical microscopes, telescopes, and optical measurement equipment for industry and science.

1932.
First Nikkor lens photography emerged as a product that varies from a distance of 50mm to 700mm.

1937.
Completing the design for the 50mm f4.5 lens, 3.5, and 2.0. Nikkor appear as original equipment for the Hansa Canon comes out in the same year. Nippon Kogaku actually produce

all lenses for Canon until mid-1947.

1948.
Nikon camera I launched. The development of own products started since 1945. Many of the proposed names like BENTAX, PANNET, NICCA, NIKKA, NIKORET, NIKO and NIKKORETTE. When

NIKKORETTE finally decided as the name of the fi nal, the name was changed back into NIKON just before the final design is produced.


1957.
To produce the best, expert technicians Nikon searching all over the world for new ideas and solutions. Leica when it is the leader in rangefi nder 35mm camera and a lot of camera manufacturers try to imitate it. Nikon dared to try to fix it. After various experiments, the Nikon SP finally released in September. Leh followed in March 1958 S3 and S4 in March 1959.


1959
In May 1959, the first Nikon SLR, the Nikon F, introduced and quickly

become an unwritten standard for fotojurnalis as well as other professional photographers. In introducing the series F, with viewfi nder which can be changed, the layer focus, and lens-lens, Nikon past the Leica as the new leader of the world's cameras.


1971
Nikon F2 easily be a dream camera. It has all the required by professional photographers on an SLR camera that can be purchased. Also has a beautiful shape and a charming tour fi.

1983.
The first compact camera with autofocus Nikon, L35AF, marketed.

1992.
Nikonos RS, underwater cameras first SLR in the world, are marketed.

1997.
Nikon CoolPix 100 digital camera market.

1999.
Camera Nikon D1 professional digital SLR market.

2005.
Nikon D2X digital SLR camera marketed D2HS Nikon digital SLR camera market.

Reference
http://orowsis.wordpress.com/2010/10/06/sejarah-nikon/
http://www.kaskus.us/showthread.php?p=172053919

Minggu, 13 Februari 2011

Sony is an electronics company based in Tokyo, Japan. Right now Sony is the world's largest electronics manufacturer and one of the largest companies in Japan and the world. Sony company traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange with the number 6758 and the New York Stock Exchange as SNE through ADR.

In late 1945, after World War II, Masaru Ibuka started a radio repair shop in a department store building in Nihonbashi, Tokyo. The next year, he was joined by his colleague Akio Morita and they founded a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo KK, which translates in English to Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation. The company built Japan's first tape recorder called the Type-G.

In the early 1950s, Ibuka traveled in the United States and hear about the 'invention of the transistor at Bell Labs. He convinced Bell to license the transistor technology to Japanese companies. While most American companies were researching the transistor for military applications, Ibuka looked to apply it to communications. Although the American companies Regency and Texas Instruments built transistor radios first, it was Ibuka's company that makes them commercially successful for the first time. In August 1955, Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering released the Sony TR-55 transistor radio's first mass-produced. They followed up in December the same year by releasing the Sony TR-72, a product that won the support both within Japan and in export markets, including Canada, Australia, Holland and Germany. Featuring six transistors, push-pull output and greatly enhanced sound quality, the TR-72 continued to be a popular seller into the early 60's.

In May 1956, the company released the TR-6, which featured an innovative slim design and sound quality capable of rivaling portable tube radios. That's for the TR-6 that Sony first contracted "Atchan", a cartoon character created by Fuyuhiko Okabe, to become advertising character. Now known as "Sony Boy", the character first appeared in a cartoon ad holding a TR-6 to his ear, but went on to represent the company in advertisements for various products well into the mid-sixties. The next year, 1957, Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering came out with the TR-63 model, the smallest (112 � 71 � 32 mm) transistor radio commercial production. It was a commercial success worldwide.

University of Arizona professor Michael Brian Schiffer, Ph.D., says, "Sony is not the first, but their transistor radios were the most successful. TR-63 in 1957 penetrate the U.S. market and launched a new industry of consumer microelectronics." In the mid-year 1950 -an, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the young industry of approximately 100,000 units in 1955 to 5,000,000 units by the end of 1968.

sony headquarters moved to Minato, Tokyo from Shinagawa, Tokyo around the end of 2006.

History of SONY:

Sony was founded on May 7, 1946 with the Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering with about 20 employees. Their first consumer product was a rice in the late 1940s. Along with the development of Sony as a large international company, he bought other companies that have longer histories, including Columbia Records (the oldest record company that still exists, was established in 1888).

When Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for names that have been romanized (not language or writing in Japan) to market their company, they strongly considered using their initials, TTK. The reason they did not, is because the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TKK.

The name "Sony" was chosen as a combination of Latin words Sonus, which is the root of sonic and sound, and the English word sonny ("child") who after a combined mean that a small group of young people who have energy and willpower to the creation and innovative idea that will not terbataskan. At that time, it is very strange for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell his name, let alone the use of phonetic characters used in Japanese writing (instead of using Chinese characters). And in 1958 the company began to formally adopt the name "Sony Corporation" as the name of the company.

This step is getting opposition; TTK bank which is a sponsor at the time, Mitsui have strong feelings against the name. They wanted a name such as Sony Electronic Industries, or Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however, because he did not want the company name associated with any particular industry. Finally, the Chairman and President Masaru Ibuka Bandai gave its approval.

In 1988, Sony bought CBS (Columbia) Records Group from CBS. He then called the "Sony Music Entertainment".

In 2000, Sony had sales of U.S. $ 63 billion and 189,700 employees. Sony acquired the company Aiwa

in 2002, Sony also has a television channel in India and channels dedicated to Indian community in Europe.

Sony Standard:
Sony has historically been notable for their own creations to impose standards for recording and storage technologies, which often differ from other manufacturers / from trends in the market. The most famous of all is the video cassette format war in the early 1980s, when Sony marketed its Betamax system for video cassette recorder against the VHS format developed by JVC. In the end, VHS gained critical mass in the marketplace and become the worldwide standard for consumer VCRs and Sony was forced to succumb.

Sony is also using their MemoryStick memory modules for digital cameras and other portable equipment, a few other companies use. Sony is also trying to compete with Iomega Zip drives and Imation Superdisk through artificial HiFD them but failed big.

Development
On July 20, 2004, the European Union approved the 50-50 merger between Sony Music Entertainment and BMG. The new company will be called Sony BMG and Universal will be with fellow RIAA, control 60% of the world music market.

On 13 September 2004, a Sony-led consortium completed the agreement to purchase the famous film studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for $ 5 billion, including $ 2 million in debt. (But ane believe, this debt can be paid off by film2 quality that will diahasilkan Metro-Goldwin-Meyer next, example james bond series,)

The following products produced by sony:
TV = Sony has a BRAVIA TV range that has fitur2 sophisticated, such as definition full hd 1080p, HDMI, USB slot, LED screen triluminos, Motionflow (refine movement), and 10-bit color, and BRAVIA Engine sbagai graphics engine, (TPI most BRAVIA with this sophisticated spec only available in certain series, such as the series X, ZX, EX, and W, for a personal dictionary agan and gentlemen, adalh BRAVIA stands for Best Resolution Audio Visual Integrated Architecture

COMPUTER = VAIO computer from Sony is a series, to personal dictionary agan2, VAIO stands for Visual Audio Intelligence Organiservaio itself has such a powerful laptop jajarn series Z, FW, and AW ,.... ranks of the computer already has a high specification required users ngakses for a variety of applications and heavy media,

MUSIC PLAYER = SONY also has a line of music players, which named WALKMAN, music player lagendaris (before the throne of the king finally fell to the ipod music player) actually own walkman series has an "ultimate her" the walkman series X. walkman series x has been using a touchscreen OLED display, and has a storage capacity of up to 16 and 32 gb,

GAME CONSOLE = SONY also has games, playstation.
We have a lot to know effiel tower which is the pride of Perancis.Menara Eiffel tower is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars on the banks of the Seine in Paris. The tower has become a global icon of France and one of the world famous structure.

This structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance to Exposition, World's Fair that celebrated the French Revolution a century. Actually planning to build the Eiffel tower in Baecelona, for the Universal Exhibition of 1888, but the responsible parties in Barcelona city hall thought strange and expensive, and does not fit with the city. After the rejection of Plan of Barcelona, Eiffel send the draft to the party responsible for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, where he built the tower a year later, in 1889. The tower was inaugurated on March 31, 1889, and opened on May 6. Three hundred workers joined together 18,083 of iron unders (a pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million of nails, in the form of structural by Maurice Koechelin. The risk of accident is very great, to modern skyscrapers the tower is unusual open without the middle level except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took care, including use of the moving pulley block, auxiliary rails and screens, and in this case only one who died.

The tower is getting criticism from the public when it is built, calling it disturbing eyes. Daily newspapers are filled with letters of criticism from the art community in Paris.

Eiffel tower standing licensed for 20 years, which means it must be dismantled in 1909, when ownership transferred to the City of Paris. The city had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower that is easy to tear down) but after this tower proved extremely profitable in terms of communication, the tower was left standing after the permit expires. For example, the military uses it to arrange a taxi Paris on the front lines during the First Battle of the Marne, and the battle was a victory monomen

Jumat, 11 Februari 2011

The Java programming language the first born of The Green Project, which runs for 18 months, from early 1991 to summer 1992. The project is not using a version called Oak. The project was initiated by Patrick Naughton, Mike Sheridan, James Gosling and Bill Joy, along with nine other programmers from Sun Microsystems. One result of this project is the Duke mascot created by Joe Palrang. Project meeting took place in an office building Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park.

Around the summer of 1992 the project was closed by generating a Java program's first Oak, which is intended to control a device with touch screen technology (touch screen), like on a PDA today. This new technology named "* 7A? � (Seven Star). After the era of Star Seven completed, a subsidiary of cable TV plus a few people interested in the project The Green Project. They focus their activities on an office space at 100 Hamilton Avenue, Palo Alto. The new company is getting ahead: the number of employees increased in a short time from 13 to 70 people. At this time span was also determined using the Internet as a medium that bridges the work and ideas between them.

In the early 1990s, the Internet is still a stub, which is used only in academic circles and the military. They make the browser (browser) Mosaic as the basis for beginning to create the first Java browser called Web Runner, inspired by 1980s film, Blade Runner. In the development of the first release, the Web Runner renamed Hot Java. In about March 1995, for the first time the Java source code version 1.0a2 opened. Their success was followed with news for the first time in the newspaper San Jose Mercury News on May 23, 1995. Unfortunately there are divisions among them one day at 04.00 in a hotel room Sheraton Palace. Three of the main leaders of the project, Eric Schmidt and George Paolini from Sun Microsystems along with Marc Andreessen, Netscape form.

Oak name, taken from an oak tree that grows in front of the workspace window "father of Java", James Gosling. Oak name is not used for release versions of Java as a software has been registered with a trademark, so take the name of his successor to "Java". The name is taken from the ground pure coffee beans directly from (black coffee) Gosling's favorite.

Early versions of Java
An early version of Java ditahun 1996 for a release version so called Java Version 1.0. Java version includes many standard packages are being developed at the beginning of the next version:


* Java.lang: Appropriation class basic elements.
* Java.io: The Allocation of input and output classes, including the use of the file.
* Java.util: Appropriation complementary classes such as class data structure and class calendar class.
* Java.net: Appropriation class TCP / IP, which enables to communicate with other computers using TCP / IP.
* Java.awt: Classes basis for applications with a user interface (GUI)
* Java.applet: Class basic application interface to be implemented in a web browser.

Excess Java Program
* Multiplatform. The major advantage of Java is to run on multiple platforms / operating system computer, in accordance with the principle of write once, run anywhere. With these advantages enough programmer to write a Java program and compile (modified, from a language understood by humans into machine language / bytecode) once and then the results can be run on multiple platforms without changes. This will allow a java-based program is done on the Linux operating system but run well on Microsoft Windows. Supported platforms to date are Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS and Sun Solaris. Penyebanya are each operating system uses its own program (which can be downloaded from the Java site) for the meninterpretasikan bytecode.

* OOP (Object Oriented Programming - Object Oriented Programmers) which means that all aspects are contained in the Java Objects. Java is a programming language based purely oebjek. All data types are derived from base class called Object. It is very easy programmers to design, create, develop and allocate fault a base for Java programs with fast, accurate, easy and organized. These advantages make Java as one of the easiest programming language, even for the advanced functions such as communication between the computer though.

* The Complete Class Library, Java is famous for its completeness library / library (a collection of programs that are included in java programming) is very easy in use by the programmers to build applications. Completeness of the library coupled with the existence of a large Java community that constantly create new libraries to cover all application development needs.

* Style C + +, a programming language syntax such as [C + +] and attracted a lot of C + + programmers moving to Java. Currently, users of Java very much, mostly C + + programmer who moved to Java. Universities in the United States also began to migrate to teach Java to the new students because it is more easily understood by students and can be useful also for those who are not majoring in computer.

* Automatic garbage collection, has a facility setting memory usage so that the programmer does not need to do direct memory settings (as in C + + which is widely used.)

Lack of Java programs

* Write once, fix it anywhere - There are still some things that are not compatible between platforms one with another platform. For J2SE, for example, SWT-AWT bridge that until now does not work on Mac OS X.

* Easy didekompilasi. Decompilation is the reverse process of the finished code into the source code. This is possible because Java is a bytecode koe so many attributes that store high-level languages, such as class names, methods, and data types. The same thing happened to Microsoft. NET Platform. Thus, the algorithms used will be more difficult to program and easy to hide hijacked / direverse-engineer.

* Use lots of memory. The use of memory for Java-based program is much greater than the previous generation of high-level languages like C / C + + and Pascal (more specifically, Delphi and Object Pascal). Usually this is not a problem for those who use the latest technology (as trends cheap built-in memory), but a problem for those who still have to stick with the engine computer for more than 4 years old.

Reference:
http://www.vavai.com/blog/index.php?/archives/587-Sejarah-Java.html
http://cybernetix.or.id/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=49:sejarah-perkembangan-java&catid=19:programming&Itemid=79