Tampilkan postingan dengan label Awlia Allah. Tampilkan semua postingan
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Jumat, 08 Juni 2012


There are some of the zawiyas where the shaykhs resisted the invaders and did jihad with weapons or the pen or the tongue. It is not our aim to examine all the mujahidun Awliya here. We simply want to provide some evidence for those who say that not all the Sufi orders submitted to colonialists. These are but a few of the Sufi Shaykhs among those who liberated the Moroccan coasts and resisted the colonialists in the east and west, and some of them were killed as martyrs. Many Shaykhs who were martyred while defending Islam were not mentioned, like the saints of Banu Amghar allied with Sidi Abdellah ibn Sasi who went out in jihad in Azammour when it was occupied by the Portuguese in 947/1532; the Jazulite Shaykh Sidi Aissa Misbahi who as martyred in a battle at Tangier in 928/1513; the Sufi Shaykh Sidi Rahhal al-Kush (d. after 945/1530), the murabit Sidi Abdellah ibn Omar al-Mdaghri (d. 927/1521) who skirmished with the Portuguese near the feitorias of Massa and Agadir; the greatest murabit in the lands south of the Atlas mountains, Sidi Ahmed ou Mbarak al-Aqqawi (d. 924/1509), a Jazulite master from the emporium centre of Aqqa in the lower Dar'a valley; the Sharif Sidi Mohammed ibn Abderrahman Zaydani (d. 723/1517), allied with the Murabit Sidi Abdellah ibn Omar al-Mdaghri (d. 927/1521) and Sidi Barakat ibn Mohammed Tidasi (d. 917/1555), leaded the attack against the Portuguese feitorias of Tafant in 916/1501; Sidi al-'Iyyachi ibn Abderrahman Skirej al-Fasi -father of al-Allama Sidi Ahmed Skirej, the companion of Mawlana Shaykh Abul Abbas Tijani, who fought the Spanish in Tetouan in the war of 1266/1859 and died from his wounds in the city of Fez.

Sidi Mohammed ibn Slimane Jazouli (d. 869/1454)

Six years before his martyrdom, the venerated Sufi Shaykh, founder of the Jazouliya Sufi order, Sidi Mohammed ibn Slimane Jazouli, moved from Asafi and headquarter himself south to Haha, a foothill region of the High Atlas mountains midway between Dukkala and the Sus and a strategic location to the defence of central Morocco. The Imam established his new ribat at Afughal, in the A�t Dawud tribal region east of the present town of Tamanar. In fact, he maintained two ribats in the region: one for use in the summer and one for use in the winter. The Imam's summer ribat have been near the pass of Sidi Ali Mashu in Jabal Igran, where the High Atlas mountains rise to an altitude of over 6,000 feet. His winter ribat, by contrast, have been located nearer the coast�below Jabal Amsitten near the present town of Smimou�where the Atlas foothills reached no more than 300 feet in elevation. The military force of the Imam based in these ribats have served as a buffer against Christian incursions by threatening the Portuguese at both Asafi to the north and Massa to the south. On the fourth day of Dul-Qi'ada 869 (28 June 1454), the Imam collapsed and died while making his Subh prayer. Because of the suddenness of his death and the fact that he gave no sign of illness beforehand, it was immediately assumed that the Portuguese had poisoned him.

Sidi al-Haj Ali al-Baqqal Aghsawi (d. 980/1565)

Sidi al-Haj Ali al-Baqqal (d. 980/1565) is the founder of the famous Baqqaliya Order which spread widely in north-western Morocco. He studied Sufism under the Jazulite Shaykh Sidi Abdellah Habti (d. 963/1548) but the Zarruqite Sufi Sidi Mohammed ibn Ali Kharroubi (d. 963/1548) was his main spiritual guide. The descendents of the Shaykh was knows for their jihad against the colonialists. One of their stands against colonialism occurred after the death of the Saadi ruler, al-Mansur, in 1012/1597, an event that led to civil war between his three sons. One of the sons, Mohammed, fled to Spain in 1017/1602 to incite the Spanish against his brother, Zaydan. The Spanish responded to his request, stipulating that he hand over Larache after evacuating its Muslim inhabitants, to which he agreed. He sent his qaid who evacuated Larache, killing a number of its residents who refused to leave their homes. The Spanish were then able to occupy it in 1019/1604. When that happened, that sharif Sidi Ahmed al-Imrani went to the gatherings in Fez calling for a jihad and the expulsion of the Spanish. Before that Mohammed had asked for a fatwa from the scholars of Fez allowing him to surrender Larache to ransom his sons from the unbelievers and some scholars gave him that fatwa. Some scholars went into hiding and others fled from Fez. The most courageous of the scholars and the firmest in standing for the truth was the Sufi Shaykh Sidi Abu Abdellah Mohammed ibn Abi Ali Baqqali. He did not flee nor hide, but answered with the truth and clearly stated that allegiance to this man was void, even going to the office of the Sultan to state that. As a consequence of taking this stand, he was killed in 1017/1602.

Sidi Mohammed ibn Yajbash Tazi (d. 920/1505)

The Qadirite Sufi of Taza Sidi Mohammed ibn Yajbash (d. 920/1505) was deeply concerned at what the Moroccan coast had to suffer from the humiliation of occupation by the Christians. He wrote a treaty which he called Kitab al-jihad li kulli man qala Rabbi Allah thumma istaqam (Holy War to all of those who say My Lord is God' and follow the Straight Path). Kitab al-jihad is an overtly political work that was inspired by the fall of the Atlantic port of Asila to the Portuguese in 876/1471. It was written to exhort the ulama of Morocco to awaken the social and political crises that plugged their region and to undertake the reforms that were necessary to unite the Muslim community in its defence. The book consisted of admonition, encouragements and summons to Jihad, and ended with a poem of 170 verses which urged the Muslims to engage in jihad. The beginning of Kitab al-jihad is written in the style of khutba, a Friday sermon, and evokes a stark image of impending doom:

Worshippers of God! What is this great negligence that has fixed itself in your hearts, upon which the ego relies, and which has negated proper guidance and God's favour? Are you not aware that your enemies are investigating you and are employing every strategy in order to get you? They have gathered together in numbers and too large to count and have sent their spies and scouts to every land in order to inform them of what your numbers are, as well as your strengths and convictions. They have told their leaders of your foolishness and negligence, and that your numbers, compared to theirs, are as insignificance and as weak as can be. For you are divided against your Muslim brothers and care nothing about debasing the religion of the Lord of Messengers and taking [as captives] the believing worshipers of God.

Once they have known everything about your conditions, your lack of care, and preoccupations, they will crave� to attain their goals. Then they will gather� and go out into these lands. But they will be satisfied neither with possessing it nor with obtaining wealth and slaves. Instead, they will cause glory and happiness into debasement and sorrow. They will cause despair and expulsion to prevail, both in feeling and in fact. [The people of this land] will be shackled with chains and irons and everyday they will suffer grievous agony; they will become like chattel and slaves and those who only yesterday were rich and secure will be poor and afraid. They will be robbed of their possession, their material conditions will be upset, their women will be separated from them, their daughters will be taken from them, and the unbelievers will complete over the prices at which they will purchase them.

So what is this negligence about your brothers, oh Muslims? Even now, [the unbelievers] are watching you at every moment in time. They are not satisfied with food, nor they do find rest in sleep. What is the condition of one who lies fettered in chains or shackles and under arrest? These [unfortunates] only serve [their masters] beneath reprimands and blows, with abuse, slaps, and insults; they will find neither pity nor mercy; they cannot imagine the sorrow and affliction that they undergo; their tears will pour down their cheeks and they will be overcome by sadness that knows no relief! Is there anyone who can cool these embers? Where is the compassion of the people of Islam? Where is the mercy of Sidna Mohammed's (peace and blessing be upon him) umma, who are characterised by the noblest of qualities�the devotees of the one who is famous for his excellence and the instrument of attainment of God?

Sidi Abu Hassan Ali ibn Uthman Shawi (d. 925/1510)

The venerated mystic Sidi Abu Hassan Ali ibn Uthman Shawi recited the Quran in battles and sometimes recited the Burda of the Moroccan origin Shadhilite master Sidi Sharafuddin al-Busairi Sanhaji (697/1298). He was martyred close to al-Qasr Lakbir in 925/1510.

Sidi Abu Abdellah Mohammed Yahya Bahlouli (d. 965/1550)

The Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Bahlouli was devoted to jihad and composed many poems. He used to think that the prayer of an Imam who did not take part in jihad.

Sidi Abul Mahasin Yusuf al-Fasi (d. 1013/1598)

The Shaykh Abul Mahasin al-Fasi has himself attended the famous Wad al-Makhazin (or the Battle of The three Kings) which occurred in the 4th of August, 1578, along with the Jazulite masters Sidi Abdellah Benhassoun (d. 1013/1598) and Sidi Mhammed ibn Ali ibn Raysun (d. 1018/1603), which took place in 986/1571 between the Moroccans and the Christians (Portuguese and Spanish) under King Sebastian who attacked northern Morocco with 125.000 men and 200 cannons. They wanted to occupy Morocco and christianise it as they have done with Andalusia. The Muslims won the battle, as history records, but we want to mention the three positions of the Shaykh of the Zawiya, Sidi Abul Mahasin al-Fasi, before, during and after the battle.

The first position was when people were alarmed by the army of the Portuguese which was occupying Moroccan lands, and which had almost reached al-Qasr all-Kabir, the birthplace of Shaykh Abul Mahasin. People decided to leave the land and flee to the mountains since the Sultan of Morocco was still in Marrakech about 100 kilometres from there. Shaykh Sidi Abul Mahasin spoke to people and encouraged them to remain firm. He said: "Stay in your towns and homes. The King of the Christians is confined where he is until the Sultan comes from Marrakech'. The Christians will be booty for the Muslims. Whoever wishes will be able to receive 50 uqiyyas for each Christian," indicating their price.

The second position was during the battle itself. We read in Ahmed ibn Khalid Nasiri's (d. 1312/1897) Kitab al-Istiqsa, "On that day Shaykh Abul Mahasin was in one of the flanks. I think that there was some movement by the Muslim army and there was a break on that side. The Muslim lines broke and the Christians attacked them, but the Shaykh stood firm as did those with him until Allah give victory to the Muslims." The third position was when Shaykh Abul Mahasin was present on an expedition in which he fought, but refrained from the booty (ghanima), not taking any of it because it was looted and not taken in legal manner due to the death of the Sultan that day.

Sidi Mohammed ibn Abi Bakr Dilai (d. 1046/1631)

The Shadhilite Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Majjati was born in 997/1582 in the famous Dila Zawiya situated in central Morocco where he grew up and engaged in study along with his brothers. His masters included Sidi Ahmed Slasi and Sidi al-Arbi al-Fasi. He took the Jazulite tariqa from his father, the Pole of the Time, the Great Succour, Sidi Abu Bakr ibn Mohammed Majjati Dilai (d. 1021/1606), who took the path from the great master Sidi Abu Amr al-Qastali (d. 974/1559), from Sidi Abdelkarim al-Fallah (d. 933/1518), from the Patron Saint Sidi Abu Faris Moulay Abdellaziz Tabba'a (d. 914/1499), who had it from the Supreme Saint of Marrakech Mawlana Mohammed ibn Slimane Jazouli (d. 869/1454). In 1041/1626, he went to Makka and Medina with a number of men of knowledge and met many more in the course if the journey. He studied in Medina and stayed there as a khatib and Imam, and then he later stayed in Egypt for a time where he held classes in tafsir, hadith and other subjects.

As well as his scholarly abilities, his political and military abilities became clear while his father was still alive when he sent him at the head of the army of Dila' beyond the Mouliya river. He succeeded his father after his death and the all the nearby tribes united under his subjects. The Saadi Sultan was afraid that this man would put an end to what influence he still enjoyed in Morocco. The people of Fez offered him allegiance as khalifa in the Qarawiyyine. As for the Zawiya of Dilaiya he grew up, he turned it a centre of science and education. Among the major scholars who graduated from the zawiya are the names of Sidi al-Hassan ibn Masoud al-Yusi (d. 1102/1687). In times of scarcity, the zawiya set up poor relief schemes and dispensed stocks of food to starving peasants. Relief programmes were not only set in motion in response to particularly adverse circumstances; more often than not they were a regular feature of charitable policies. Historians state that everyday 75 qantars of grain were ground and every day 7.000 poor people would be fed. On the Mawlid, there would be 70.000 thousand who were fed.

The jihad of Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Majjati Dalai was directed against the Spanish on the Atlantic coast. He called on holly warriors of all areas to fight, and among those who responded to the call was the famed venerated Shadhilite master of Fez Sidi Mohammed ibn Abdellah al-Fasi (d. 1062/1647)�the student of Sidi Abul Mahasin Yusuf al-Fasi (d. 1013/1598) and his brother Sidi Abderrahman al-Fasi (d. 1027/1612)�as well as his son Sidi Ahmed ibn Abdellah al-Fasi (d. 1129/1714). This latter was the master of Moulay Abdellaziz ibn Masoud Debbarh (d. 1132/1717) whose Sufi experiences are described in Kitab al-Ibriz. The Shadhilite masters endured great hardship in the fight against the enemy and encouraged people. One day, Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Dalai was too weak to climb up the side of the Maamoura due to his age so his son carried him so that they could reach the dangerous positions. In the siege of this port from 10 August to 2 September 1644, the Moroccan army numbered 8.000, lightly armed. After several land and naval engagements between the Dilai army and the Spanish fleet sent by Spain to relieve the siege, the Dilai army were forced to lift the siege.

Sidi Mhammed ben Nasir Dar'i (d. 1085/1674) The Revered Shaykh, the Imam of Knowers, Sidi Mhammed ben Nasir Dar'i (d. 1085/1674), the founder of the great Shadhilite Nasiri Order headquartered in Tamagrout in the district of Zagora, wrote a supplication, known as the Du'aa an-Nasiri, which begins, "O you who flee to His mercy." He wrote it during the Crusade attack on the shores of Morocco. It is the greatest evidence of his love for jihad and reliance on Allah in hardships, as well as showing the adab (courtesy) of a servant of God, and his humbleness before His hardship, and encouraging jihad against the unbelievers and praying to Allah against them. Shaykh Sidi Mhammed ben Nasir Dar'i begins by asking for help for those who fled to His mercy in hardship. It is if he were saying, "O You to whose mercy one can only flee from pains and hardships." The people of Fez call it, "The Unsheathed Sword of Ben Nasir" since they taught it to their children in schools and madrasas and they repeated it after recitation of the Holy Quran every day after the Friday prayer in the call to jihad:
O You to Whose mercy one flees!
You in Whom the one in need and distress seeks refuge!
O master, you Whom pardon is near!
O You Who help all who call on Him!

Sidi Abu Salim Abdellah Ayyashi (d. 1091/1676)

We read in Ahmed Nasiri's (d. 1312/1897) Kitab al-Istiqsa, "Abdellah Ayyashi ("Sidi Abu Salim Abdellah ibn Mohammed Ayyashi; d. 1091/1676) remained firm in jihad against the enemy, being familiar with military tactics, taking an advanced position against the enemy in attacks. He was taciturn, not given to speaking much. He constricted the Christians of El Jadida to much extent that he kept them from planning and grazing their animals. The Christians sent the Sultan gifts and he, in turn, dismissed the Shaykh, and sent an army and ordered him to be imprisoned and killed." This was the treachery to a hero. Perhaps they were among the ones who attack Sufism, because history repeats itself and this is how who deceive behave.

Sidi Mohammed Maa' al-Aynayn (d. 1325/1910)

The venerated Moroccan Qadirite Shaykh and Idrissid Sharif Sidi Mohammed Mustafa Maa� al-Aynayn was born in 1251/1831 in the Hawd of southern Mauritania and died at Tiznit in central Morocco in 1328/1910. He was a Sahrawi religious and political leader and is considered to be the father of Moroccan Sahrawi nationalism for his inspiration and leadership of a Sahrawi resistance movement in a six years holy war (1904�1910) against French and Spanish colonization in Morocco. His father, Sidi Mohammed Fadil ibn Mamin (1212/1797-1285/1870), created the Qadirite Fadiliya Sufi order. After Sidi Mohammed Fadil's death in 1869, the survival and growing importance of the Fadiliya order continued to be based on its leaders' charisma, passed from father to son. Indeed, ever since Mohammed Fadil chose to give priority to his biological sons, succession in the Fadiliya movement remained a family matter. Hence, after his death, a few of his sons took over the order's leadership, which resulted in some fragmentation within the Hawd, but also in expansion in other regions. In the Hawd, two of Sidi Mohammed Fadil's sons managed to maintain unity within the order, but their almost simultaneous deaths marked the end of an era for the Fadiliya history in this Mauritanian region. Meanwhile, two other of Sidi Mohammed Fadil's sons were successfully spreading the Fadiliya order�s influence-symbolically, religiously, socially, and politically-onto new territories: Sidi Mohammed Maa� al-Aynayn, in the Moroccan Sahara, and Sidi Sa'ad Buh in the Gibla (Trarza) � a region located in South West Mauritania. By the end of the thirteenth/nineteenth century, the Fadiliya order had spread from Senegal all the way to Morocco.

In 1859, Sidi Maa� al-Aynayn�this nickname he received as a child, meaning that of watered eyes in Arabic�settled in the Moroccan oasis of Tindouf, whose inhabitants were originally hostile to his father�s religious discourse. Yet, also taking advantage of the lack of a strong political and religious power in the region, like his father had done, the Shaykh quickly became known for his extraordinary theological production (about 50 of his books were lithographed at the end of the nineteenth century in Morocco), and his exceptional intellectual and religious capabilities, as well as for his magical powers. Besides, Sidi Maa� al-Aynayn was also known for his political abilities and his active involvement in creating matrimonial alliances, alliances with influential political forces in the region, as well as the establishment of cities. As a result, his nomad encampment attracted many students of Islamic law and Bedouins asking for his blessing.

Increasingly disturbed by Western penetration of the area, which he viewed both as an intrusion by hostile foreign powers and as a Christian assault on Islam, Shaykh Sidi Maa� al-Aynayn started to advocate resistance. Sahrawi tribes performed raids against the foreign forces even before that, but French troops drew ever closer, conquering one local ruler after the other. In 1904, the Shaykh proclaimed himself imam, and called for a holy war (Jihad) against the colonizers. His charisma as both a religious and political leader allowed him to gather tribes around him. Very importantly, he proclaimed that the trab al-beidan�a desert area that includes today's Mauritania, Moroccan Sahara and large swaths of Mali and Algeria�was under the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Hassan's rule. While the Shaykh was appointed as the Sultan�s representative in the Sahara and given control over his forces, this display of effective cooperation helped assemble a large coalition of tribes to fight the colonizers. Sidi Maa� al-Aynayn began acquiring firearms and other materials, both through channels in Morocco and through direct negotiations with rival European powers such as Germany and Spain, and quickly built up an impressive fighting force.

In 1907, the Moroccan Sultan accepted the Treaty of Algeciras, granting French colonial control over much of Morocco. In 1910, anarchy spread through Morocco, as European pressures were making Moroccan Sultanate weaker and weaker. On March 4, 1912, the Sultan Moulay Hafid signed the Protectorate treaty with the French. Meanwhile, Sidi Maa� al-Aynayn was writing a theological text titled "Hidayatu man Hara fi Muharabat an-Nasara" (Guide for the One who Doubts the Legitimacy of the War against the Christians) in which he was inciting to Jihad and calling its adversaries traitors or even miscreants. The following year, the French began interrupting the flow of arms to the Jihadists. The uprising crumbled, as French forces�then under colonel Gouraud�s control�pushed forward. Sidi Maa� al-Aynayn retreated to Tiznit. The Shaykh concerned that Morocco would fall into European hands, decided he would try to seize the country. He was proclaimed Sultan of Morocco in June, and immediately appointed head of an army of several thousand men, whose mission was to overthrow Moulay Hafid. He was intercepted on June 23, and his forces were destroyed by the modern French army. Sidi Maa� al-Aynayn, then about 80 years old, fled back to Tiznit, where he died in October.

Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Maa' al-Aynayn was succeeded by his son Sidi Mohammed Loghdof ("al-Aghdaf"; b. 1290/1875). As both marabout and leader of the Reguibat tribe, he soon became known to the French as 'our bitter enemy'. Another of Sidi Ma' El Aynayn's sons, Sidi Ahmed al-Hiba (d. 1336/1921), achieved the virtually impossible in 1912 by storming the colonial jewel of Marrakech. Although Sidi al-Hiba was forced out of the city within a month, by his act of defiance he achieved immortality, and became known as the 'Blue Sultan'. In 1912, the French burned Smara; but the city still remained the symbolic centre of the resistance. Shaykh Sidi Merebbi Rebbu, another son of his, then rose in revolt, as would several of his grandchildren. Sidi Merebbi Rebbu his father's work as dissident leader, fighting with considerable success in the Sahara and Anti Atlas until 1934, when he was finally beaten and the South succumbed to European control.

Sidi al-Haj Mohammed al-Boudali (d. after 1228/1813) The jihad of the Darqawiya order founded by the Shaykh Moulay al-Arbi ibn Ahmed Darqawi (d. 1239/1824) becomes apparent during the reign of Sultan Moulay Mohammed b. Abdellah and Mawlana Abu al-Rabi'a Sulayman. Some disciples of Moulay al-Arbi Darqawi were very politically active on several occasions. The Shaykh Sidi al-Hajj Mohammed Ahrash al-Boudali was one of them. He was a Moroccan who went to the Hijaz on pilgrimage. On his return (c. 1214/1799) from the East, he stopped in Egypt, at that moment under attack by the French. He gathered a force of Tunisians and other Maghribis�of whom there was a large colony in the late eighteenth century Cairo�to fight the invaders. Here Shaykh al-Boudali won fame for his personal bravery. After leaving Egypt, Shaykh al-Boudali stopped at Tunis, making the acquaintance of the Bey, Abu Mohammed Hammuda Pasha. The Bey entrusted him with the role of fomenting a rebellion against the Ottoman Bey of Constantine and gave him money for that purpose.

In provoking a rising, Shaykh al-Boudali's connections were significant. He also called himself Sahib al-Waqt, "Master of the Time," hinting that he might be a Mahdi or at least the forerunner of a Mahdi. He soon won resounding military successes. Hundreds of Kabyle tribesmen joined his forces. About 1218/1803, Sidi al-Boudali ambushed the incautious Bey of Constantine and massacred his army in a narrow defile. Despite the rage of the Dey at Algiers over this disaster, which was followed by intensified Ottoman military activity against him, Shaykh al-Boudali was able to hold out in the mountains of Eastern Algeria for a long time. Much of the region was in perpetual uproar over his raiding and resistance to the Dey in Algiers. However, when the Dey enlisted a qaid who knew the country and led a new army against him, Shaykh al-Boudali fled westward toward the Oran (Wahran) region, where he joined the camp of Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Benshrif, another disciple of Moulay al-Arbi Darqawi. At this point, Sidi al-Boudali vanished from history. A number of different versions exist of his final exploits and his flight to Morocco.

Another figure very much like Shaykh al-Boudali was Sidi Mohammed Benshrif ("Abu Mohammed Abdellqadir ibn ash-Sharif al-Falliti"), a Kassasa Berber from Wad al-'Abd district east and south of Oran (Wahran). He had studied at the Zawiya of Emir Abdellqadir's family at Qaytana, and was personally acquainted with Emir Abdellqadir's father. On leaving Qaytana he went to Fez where he met Moulay al-Arbi and joined his brotherhood. At this time, Moulay al-Arbi was an important political alley of the Sultan of Morocco. As a result of this connection, Sidi Benshrif returned in 1217/1802 to his own district proclaiming himself the Mahdi. He obtained quick support from the impoverished local people, who only too willing to sack and plunder under his leadership when he laid waste to adjoining areas.

Informed of Benshrif's activities, the Bey of Oran raised an army against the revel. But Shaykh Benshrif was too powerful for the Bey, who was heavily defeated by the Darqawi forces on the plain of Gharis between Mascara and Qaytana. The beaten Bey fled to Oran for cover. As they pressed their pursuit, Benshrif's men obtained much booty. Eventually they besieged Oran. A relief army was sent overland from Algiers by the Dey, commended by Ali Agha. Along the route, in the Wadi Shalif, the army was so harassed by the Darqawi forces and fell so short of food and water that it had to turn back to Algiers.

The Bey sent a letter asking for the help of the Moroccan Sultan. Since the rebellion was in the name of the Darqawi order, the aid of the order's head, Moulay al-Arbi, in settling the conflict would be most helpful. The relations between the two states had on occasion been less than friendly, and there had been a number of clashes and conflicts in the border region. However, a successful Moroccan intervention would evidently be a diplomatic fain for the Sultan, so he sent Moulay al-Arbi to Oran. But upon arriving among his brothers, the Shaykh, who was in his sixties, decided to join them and denounced the behaviour of the Bey, at which the latter sent a fairly irritated letter to the Sultan concerning the kind of aid he had provided.

In the end, the siege was broken and the Turkish forces moved to Tlemcen and laid siege to it. Tlemcen is near to the Moroccan border, and both the scholarly people and the tribes there had close contacts with their neighbours. Thus they decided to break free from Turkish rule and proclaimed their allegiance to the Moroccan Sultan. According to the Moroccan historian Ahmed Nasiri (d. 1312/1897), when Mohammed Benshrif took Tlemcen he significantly ordered the Khutba to be said in the name of the Sharifian Sultan Moulay Slimane ibn Mohammed. Moulay al-Arbi Darqawi was still in Tlemcen and must have had a decisive influence. He was sent at the head of a delegation to the Sultan with the message of allegiance.

The Turks now considered this to be a war between themselves and Morocco and were with an extra effort able to enter Tlemcen, fighting a pitched street-by-street battle with Benshrif's Darqawi forces. Initially the Sultan accepted the allegiance, but as the trial of strength was prolonged, he did not wish to commit forces in a head-on struggle with the Ottomans. So he sent a new delegation to Tlemcen to try to stop the fighting and to arrest Benshrif if he did not desist. Moulay al-Arbi, now back in Tlemcen, refused to support this, and called for the continuation of the struggle. The delegation was however successful and relations between the two countries were re-established. Fearing repression, many of the people of Tlemcen fled west cross the border and settled in the Bani Snassen (north-eastern Morocco). The Pasha of Algiers appealed to the Sultan to send them back, nut now the Sultan refused to cooperate and allowed the Tlemcenis to stay. However, Moulay al-Arbi Darqawi was imprisoned because of his disobedience, where he was to stay for two years, being only released after Sidna Shaykh Abul Abbas Tijani�s direct intervention. When released, he was later confined to Fez.

The rebellion was apparently not at end, and eight years later Sidi Benshrif was again able to inspire such fear in the Bey of Oran that he refused to travel to Tunis when requested so by his superior, as the rebel might come after him. In the same year (1228/1813), another letter of allegiance reached the Sultan, this time from the people of Tlemcen, Oran, Mostaghanam and Balida, that is all of Western Algeria. However, we do not know what the response was. Shaykh Sidi Benshrif stayed in the neighbourhood of Oran and Tlemcen until 1228/1813, when the Dey dispatched another army that managed to divide Benshrif's following and then defeat him. Sidi Benshrif fled to Morocco and took refuge in Figuig where he later died.

Sidi Mohammed ibn Hamman Wazzani (d. after 1335/1920)

The genealogy of Sidi Mohammed ibn Hamman Wazzani goes back to the founder of the autonomous Wazzaniya brotherhood founded by the Yalmahite sharif Moulay Abdellah Shrif Wazzani (d. 1089/1674). Moulay Abdellah Shrif and his successors established branches in Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, Iraq, Turkey, India, and Yemen. His Sufi order became famous throughout history for its many mujahid masters in the past and in modern times, including Shaykh Sidi Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, the son of Moulay Abdellah Wazzani who went on jihad in Larache and Mahdiya against the Portuguese in the eleventh/seventeenth century. He was wounded in the battle and died of the wound. He was taken to Wazzan and buried with his father there.

The brotherhood continued to engage in jihad and resist colonialism from that time until 1912 when the French and Spanish protectorates were imposed on Morocco. Then the Sufi mujahid, Sidi Mohammed (d. after 1335/1920), the son of the great mystic Sidi Hammed Shadhili Tuhami Yalmahi Wazzani, took action. He was a man of jurisprudence, a religious scholar, a man of scrupulousness and devotion to his land and religion, loving jihad in the Way of Allah and helping Islam and Muslims.

There was resistance to French and Spanish colonialism in Wazzan and the neighbouring tribes between 1912 and 1020 when French forces occupied the city of Wazzan with the support of Spanish forces. The resistance continued from 1912 to 1928. When the Sufi leader Sidi Mohammed ibn Hamman learned of the Spanish occupation of Larache in the middle of 1911, followed by Qasr Lakbir, and that the French had sent its armies to the plains west and south of Wazzan, he got in contact with the inhabitants of Wazzan, Masmuda, Rhamna, Ghazwana and Bani Marnisa. He was convinced of the sincerity of their intention for jihad, their eagerness to fight the colonialist armies, their desire to resist and their readiness to undertake that. Therefore he formed a revolutionary council from them which began to rule the mountainous city of Wazzan, and he took over leadership there and over the neighbouring tribes.

Then Sidi Mohammed Wazzani went around the tribes to consult them, encourage them and unify them in the fight of against the occupiers. He went from the tribe of Ghazwana�the birth place of the grand Jazulite master Sidi Abdellah Ghazwani (d. 935/1520)�where he was a guest at the scholar and Qadi Si Mohammed 'Abudi who welcomed his call to jihad and summoned the members of the tribe, and encouraged the inhabitants of Wazzan to make gunpowder, prepare riffles and to collect weapons. The Sharif Raysouni sent a substantial amount of modern weapons to Wazzan.

The armies of the revolt, led by Sidi Mohammed Wazzani, advanced toward the French armies and met them in fierce battles after taken up positions west and south of Wazzan, like Ein Defali and Had Kourt. Thy utilised an attack followed by retreat, in which the mujahid Sidi Mohammed Wazzani was able to halt the mass of the French army and their attack on Wazzan, the stronghold of the Wazzani zawiya and its sharifs, and so the French were completely unable to reach Wazzan for a long time.

The mujahidun continued to fight the French armies under the leadership of Sidi Mohammed Wazzani. They would turn up at military barracks and attack them at night and inflict great losses on them despite the size of the enemy army and its superiority in weapons. This continued until an alliance was formed between France and Spain who agreed to assist one another in the military arena to occupy Wazzan and the mountain regions since that would defeat the mujahidun. France occupied Wazzan. This is mentioned by Professor al-Bu'ayyashi in The Rif War of Liberation:

On June 25 June 1920 the Spanish army occupied the house of Ibn Quraysh, the original cradle of jihad, and then went on to occupy the city of Chefchaouen. At this date the Spanish and the French armies worked together to occupy Wazzan, and (General) Sylvester prepared to carry out an attack on it from all sides� The occupation (of Wazzan) took place on Saturday, 18 Muharram at 10 0'clock.

This was endured by the men of the Wazzani zawiya who resisted the armies of occupation. A large number of them were martyred and many were wounded and more than 200 captured. The remainder retreated, led by Sidi Mohammed Wazzani to the mountain of Bu Kanas at Ghazawa where they fortified themselves and then were joined by men from the tribes. The French advance stopped in Wazzan and they were content with fortifying it, disarming it and establishing security. The army entered the home of Sidi Mohammed Wazzani and seized its contents, confiscated all his possessions, and arrested all of his relatives and made an example for them. Of the noble sons of Wazzan, about 200 remained in captivity until Qadi Abudi ransomed them in exchange for a French pilot who had been captured in the region of Dar al-Wadi in the tribe of Ghazawa when the sons of Abudi shot down his plane.

Sidi Mohammed Wazzani moved to the region of Abudi with a number of fighters and some members of the Wazzani bureau of resistance and continued the struggle for another eight years. The revolt of Mohammed ibn Abdelkarim Khattabi started and then ended while the revolt of Sidi Mohammed Wazzani with the mujahidun continued among the Ghazawa until 1928. When it became clear to the Wazzani leader that nothing would come of it and some notables interceded from him with the French authorities, he returned to the city of Wazzan and stayed in his house until he died. As for the property which was confiscated by the authority of the Protectorate, it was not returned�other than the house he lived in. The rest was put in the Makhzan (governmental authority) and is still being claimed by his heirs.

Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir ibn Abil Abbas Tijani (d. 1238/1823)

Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir ibn al-Qutb al-Maktum Mawlana Abil al-Abbas Tijani was born in the village of Abi Samghoune. His mother is Sayida Mabrouka. He died as a Martyr with more than 300 persons from Abi Samghoun against the Bey�s Turkish forces near the city of Mascara (Mu�askar, western Algeria) in 1238 /1823. The great scholar Ben Mohammed al-Alawi Chinquiti described this battle in his book Rawdh Shamail Ahl Al-Haqiqa� (The Narratives� bliss of the truth�s community): Then Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir went to Mascara where the Turks were settling and during the fighting Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir fell as a martyr with more than 300 men from Abi Samghoun. In the aftermath of this battle, the Turks beheaded Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir. Sidna Shaykh Tijani was aware through the kashf (foresight) about his son�s fate. That is why he implored Almighty Allah that the Turks will meet the same fate as that of the Andalusians in Spain. Sidi Ahmed Skirej documents in Rafa�a an-Niqab vol.1, page 239,

�It was reported to me by a trusty person that Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir ibn Sidna Shaykh when he entered the khalwa (seclusion) in Abi Samghoune, he heard a voice calling him to stand up firmly and to fight the invaders in Algerian territory. As such he consulted Sidi Belkacem al-Annabi Tunsi. Sidi Belkacem responded in an advise to Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir that truly he was on the right path and must carry on, still he should divide the fighters in two distinct groups one will remain in Abi Samghoune with the younger brother Sidi Mohammed al-Habib (d. 1269/1854), so did Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir by following the terms of Sidi Belkacem�s advise and there was a last farewell between the two groups as well as with Sidi Mohammed al-Habib and Sidi Mohammed al-Kabir�.

Sidi Mohammed al-Habib ibn Sidna Shaykh Tijani had the same fate of his brother. He was martyred in a battle against the French. His grandson Sidi Taher ibn Sidi Ahmed A'mar was in turn exiled to France.

Sidi Mohammed ibn Ahmed Hajjami (d. 1362/1947)

The Shadhilite Shaykh Sidi Mohammed ibn Ahmed Hajjami was born in 1282 in the tribe of Jaya in the Zawiya of Bu Walid near the great city of Fez and died in 1362/1947. The Shaykh fought the French for fifteen years, driving their armies out of the plains, mountains and valleys of Morocco. On 25 May, 1912, forty-five days after the establishment of the Protectorate, he attacked the French armies in Fez, the scholarly and political capital at that time. At 10pm, the neighbouring tribes surrounded Fez under the leadership of Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Hajjami who was 46 at that time. The volunteers, who numbered 20,000, attacked the city. Some of them broke through the walls, some of them climbed the walls and some entered through the water courses. They surrounded the city on all sides and there was a bloody battle known as the Bloody Days of Fez.

The Shaykh first gathered these forces in the zawiya and then they advanced on Fez divided into five squadrons. The French had no scruples about entering some of the mosques and going up the minarets where some of them opened fire on the fighters of the Zawiya from above, so a group of faithfuls attacked the minarets and killed the officers and soldiers inside. The French army turned their attention to the seat of the leadership of Shaykh Sidi Mohammed ibn Ahmed Hajjami to cut off the resistance at its sources and to sever the head of the lion from its body.

In July 1912 a group of French officers surrounded the camp of Shaykh Hajjami in a place known as the Kahila Rock and set it on fire. In Shaykh Hajjami's tent they found a letter containing the details of military operations and maps for them, and this document still exists in the Vincennes Museum in Paris. The General left Fez and made for the Hajjami Zawiya before the news could spread through the neighbouring tribes and was able to demolish it, disperse its inhabitants and attack them with weapons as its opponents attacked it with lies. The French forces met with stiff resistance despite the element surprise since a group of the Fuqara of the zawiya were there and climbed into the trees and concealed themselves in the branches and began to shoot at the French forces.

History records eight expeditions undertaken by the Hajjami Zawiya, seven against the French forces and one against the Spanish in different parts of Morocco. Some of the disciples who were present are still alive and remember the tragedy. They still recall events and their ferocity while they were reinforcing the strategic positions of the leader of the zawiya, their Shaykh. The French recorded these battles, led by Marshall Lyautey in his book, Lyautey of Africa, p. 68, and there are still some documents connected to the jihad of the zawiya preserved in Paris under the following numbers: Attacks against Fez, May 7, 1912, no, 6, document 410; newspapers dating from 2nd to 26th May, 1912, in the Museum of the Army in Vincennes, Paris.

The Moroccan leader, Allal al-Fasi -grandson of al-Allama Sidi Allal b. al-Khatib al-Fasi Fihri (d. 1314/1899); the companion of Mawlana Shaykh Abul Abbas Tijani- wrote about it in his book, Independent Movements in Morocco. "Almost as soon as news of the Protectorate spread about the city of Fez, individuals from the royal army rushed to kill their French officers. The agitation spread to the people and battles continued under the leadership of Hajjami. General Gourand found at the Kahila Stone about 15 km from Fez a map containing the prepared operations in the best manner which he could hope for from a military point of view. It contained detailed of the movements of the army and the tactics it was following, and it contained a call to struggle to liberate the homeland." The movement of Shaykh Sidi Mohammed Hajjami and the revolts of the Moroccans produced uproar in France in the session of the Assembly of Representatives held on Friday, 28 January and 85 members voiced their opposition to the Protectorate. The same occurred in Senate. Poincar� gave a speech on 11 June, attributing the events occurring in Morocco in the treaty of the Protectorate.

Source: http://www.dar-sirr.com/

Selasa, 04 Januari 2011

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Dari Abu Huriroh rodhiAllahu ta�ala �anhu beliau berkata: Rasulullah shallallahu �alaihi wa sallam bersabda: �Allah ta�ala berfirman, barang siapa memusuhi wali-Ku maka aku izinkan untuk diperangi. Tidaklah seorang hamba-Ku mendekatkan diri kepada-Ku dengan suatu amal ibadah yang lebih aku cintai dari pada perkara yang Aku wajibkan. Hamba-Ku akan senantiasa mendekatkan diri kepada-Ku dengan amalan sunnah hingga Aku mencintainya. Jika Aku mencintainya, Akulah pendengarannya yang dia gunakan untuk mendengar, Akulah penglihatannya yang dia gunakan untuk melihat, Akulah tangannya yang dia gunakan untuk berbuat, Akulah kakinya yang dia gunakan untuk berjalan. Jika dia meminta kepada-Ku akan Aku berikan, jika dia meminta perlindungan pada-Ku, akan Aku lindungi.� (HR. Bukhari)

Penjelasan

Hadits ini merupakan hadits yang sangat agung. Rasulullah bersabda, [Allah ta�ala berfirman] hal ini menunjukkan bahwa hadits ini adalah hadits Qudsi. [Barang siapa memusuhi wali-Ku maka aku izinkan untuk diperangi] yaitu menjadikan wali Allah sebagai musuh yang ia benci. Para ulama menjelaskan bahwa yang dimaksud dalam hadits ini jika seseorang membenci wali Allah karena agamanya. Adapun, jika ia memusuhi wali Allah karena perkara dunia sehingga terjadi perselisihan di antara mereka, maka hal seperti ini perlu dirinci. Pertama, Jika perselisihan tersebut menimbulkan kebencian maka dikhawatirkan orang tersebut akan termasuk dalam ancaman hadits ini. Kedua, jika perselisihan tersebut terjadi tanpa menimbulkan rasa kebencian, maka tidak termasuk dalam makna hadits ini, yaitu orang tersebut tidak menjadi orang yang diumumkan bahwa ia akan diperangi. Demikianlah, penghulu para wali umat ini pun saling berselisih. Abu Bakar dan Umar pernah berselisih dalam beberapa kesempatan. Sahabat Abbas pernah berselisih dengan sahabat Ali sampai perkaranya dibawa ke pengadilan dan beberapa kasus lainnya.

Terjadinya perselisihan tanpa diiringi kebencian kepada wali Allah, bukanlah yang dimaksud dalam hadits ini. Adapun jika ia membenci salah seorang wali Allah, maka orang ini layak diperangi. Allah jalla wa �ala telah mengizinkannya untuk diperangi dengan peperangan yang berasal dari Allah. Izin Allah untuk memerangi maknanya adalah bahwa orang tersebut diketahui akan mendapatkan hukuman dari Allah. Peperangan dari Allah maknanya adalah diturunkannya azab dan siksa Allah pada hamba-Nya. Rasulullah shallallahu �alaihi wa sallam bersabda, [Barang siapa memusuhi wali-Ku]. Istilah Wali menurut Ahlusunnah wal Jamaah adalah setiap mukmin yang bertakwa dan bukan Nabi. Inilah definisi Wali menurut Ahlusunnah wal Jamaah yaitu bahwa Wali adalah setiap orang yang memiliki keimanan dan ketakwaan.

Karena derajat keimanan dan ketakwaan bertingkat-tingkat, maka derajat kewalian �yaitu kecintaan dan pertolongan Allah pada hamba-Nya- juga bertingkat-tingkat. Yang dimaksud dengan wali adalah orang yang senantiasa menyempurnakan keimanan dan ketakwaan sesuai dengan kemampuannya serta sebagian besar kondisinya berada dalam keimanan dan ketakwaan. Hal ini berdasarkan firman Allah jalla wa �ala,

???? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????

Ingatlah, sesungguhnya wali-wali Allah itu, tidak ada kekhawatiran terhadap mereka dan tidak (pula) mereka bersedih hati. (Yaitu) orang-orang yang beriman dan mereka selalu bertakwa.� (QS. Yunus: 62-63)

Allah menyebutkan bahwa wali-Nya adalah orang yang beriman dan bertakwa. Barang siapa yang memusuhi orang mukmin, bertakwa yang selalu menyempurnakan keimanan dan ketakwaan sesuai dengan kemampuannya dan tidak terdapat celaan yang mengurangi kesempurnaan iman dan takwanya maka dia diizinkan untuk diperangi. Yaitu bahwa dia diketahui dan diancam dengan siksaan dari Allah jalla wa �ala. Karena Wali tersebut dicintai dan ditolong oleh Allah jalla wa �ala dan kita wajib untuk mencintai orang tersebut karena Allah cinta padanya.

Kemudian Allah berfirman, [Tidaklah seorang hamba-Ku mendekatkan diri kepada-Ku dengan suatu amal ibadah yang lebih aku cintai dari pada perkara yang Aku wajibkan]. Yaitu bahwa bentuk taqorrub (pendekatan diri) seorang hamba yang paling dicintai oleh Allah adalah menunaikan kewajiban. Inilah bentuk taqorrub yang paling dicintai oleh Allah. Seperti sholat lima waktu, menunaikan zakat, melaksanakan puasa wajib, melaksanakan haji yang wajib dan perkara lainnya yang telah diwajibkan oleh Allah kepada seorang hamba. Hal merupakan perkara yang paling dicintai Allah jalla wa �ala.

Hal ini berbeda dengan yang terjadi pada sebagian orang. Orang tersebut merasakan khusyuk dan tunduk ketika mengerjakan perkara yang sunnah tidak sebagaimana yang terjadi ketika mengerjakan perkara yang wajib. Hal ini menyelisihi ilmu. Sebagaimana disebutkan pada hadits qudsi ini bahwa Allah jalla jalaaluh mencintai bahkan lebih mencintai seorang hamba yang bertaqorrub dengan amalan yang wajib. Allah mewajibkan perkara-perkara yang fardhu karena Allah suka jika seorang hamba beribadah pada-Nya dengan perkara wajib tersebut.

Kemudian Allah berfirman: [Hamba-Ku akan senantiasa mendekatkan diri kepada-Ku dengan amalan sunnah hingga Aku mencintainya]. Yaitu hamba-Ku senantiasa mendekatkan diri kepada-Ku dengan perkara yang sunnah �yaitu perkara sunnah dalam ibadah setelah menunaikan perkara yang wajib- sehingga Allah jalla wa �ala mencintainya. Dia disifati sebagai orang yang banyak melakukan amalan sunnah karena banyaknya ia melakukan perkara sunnah baik berupa sholat, puasa, sedekah, haji, umroh dan lain sebagainya.

Allah berfirman: [Hingga Aku mencintainya]. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kecintaan Allah jalla wa �ala dapat diraih dengan bersegera dalam ketaatan dengan mengerjakan amalan sunnah dan bersegera melakukannya setelah menunaikan amalan wajib serta mendekatkan diri kepada Allah dengan perkara sunnah tersebut.

Allah berfirman: [Jika Aku mencintainya]. Karena kecintaan Allah jalla wa �ala pada seorang hamba akan memberikan pengaruh. Apa pengaruh tersebut? [Jika Aku mencintainya, Akulah pendengarannya yang dia gunakan untuk mendengar, Akulah penglihatannya yang dia gunakan untuk melihat�] dan seterusnya hingga akhir hadits. Para ulama Ahlusunnah menafsirkan perkataan Allah [Akulah pendengarannya yang dia gunakan untuk mendengar] yaitu bahwa Aku akan memberikan taufik dan meluruskan pendengaran dan penglihatannya, serta apa yang diperbuat oleh kedua tangannya dan ke mana kakinya melangkah. Makna kalimat [Akulah pendengarannya yang dia gunakan untuk mendengar] yaitu bahwa Aku akan memberikan taufik dan meluruskannya. Penjelasan seperti ini bukanlah sebuah penyimpangan makna. Karena ketetapan syariat yang tegas menunjukkan bahwa zat Allah jalla wa �ala tidak bercampur dengan makhluk dalam pendengaran-Nya, penglihatan-Nya, tangan-Nya dan kaki-Nya Maha Suci dan Maha Agung Robb kita. Maka ketetapan syariat menunjukkan bahwa firman-Nya: [Akulah pendengarannya yang dia gunakan untuk mendengar] yaitu Aku memberikan taufik dan meluruskan pendengarannya. Apa yang didengarnya adalah sesuatu yang Allah cintai untuk diperdengarkan. Apa yang dilihatnya adalah sesuatu yang Allah cintai untuk dilihat. Apa yang dikerjakan dengan tangannya adalah sesuatu yang Allah cintai untuk dikerjakan, demikian pula dengan langkah kakinya.

Orang-orang sufi ekstrem menjadikan hadits ini sebagai dalil bahwa Allah bersatu dengan makhluk. Setelah firman Allah [Akulah kakinya yang dia gunakan untuk berjalan] mereka menambahkan redaksi hadits yang palsu yaitu: �Sampai-sampai jika ia berkata pada sesuatu, �Jadilah!� maka sesuatu tersebut akan terjadi.� Tambahan ini bersumber dari akidah hulul (keyakinan bahwa Allah bersatu dengan makhluk �pent). Tambahan ini diriwayatkan dengan sanad yang munkar. Bahkan sejumlah ulama menilai tambahan tersebut adalah maudhu� (palsu).

Kemudian firman Allah, [Jika dia meminta kepada-Ku akan Aku berikan, jika dia meminta perlindungan pada-Ku, akan Aku lindungi]. Yaitu, demi Allah, jika dia meminta kepada-Ku akan Aku berikan. Karena huruf �lam� pada kalimat ini merupakan isi sumpah dan sebelumnya ada kalimat sumpah yang dibuang. [Jika dia meminta kepada-Ku akan Aku berikan] yaitu, demi Allah jika dia meminta kepada-Ku akan Aku berikan apa yang ia minta. Yaitu bahwa Allah akan mengabulkan doanya. [Jika dia meminta perlindungan pada-Ku, akan Aku lindungi] ini adalah bagian dari kalimat sebelumnya. Semoga Allah menjadikan kita semua termasuk di antara hamba-hambaNya yang istimewa dan para wali-Nya.

Sumber : masaafirulkhoonah

Selasa, 28 Desember 2010

Wali Allah Menurut Hakim At-Tirmidzi

Hakim at-Tirmidzi lahir di Tirmidz, Uzbekistan, Asia Tengah pada tahun 205 H/820 M. Nama lengkapnya adalah Abu Abd Allah Muhammad bin Ali bin Hasan al-Hakim at-Tirmidzi. Ia berasal dari keluarga ilmuwan ahli fiqih dan hadits.

Ia mendefinisikan Wali Allah adalah seorang yang demikian kokoh di dalam peringkat kedekatannya kepada Allah (fi martabtih), memenuhi persyaratan-persyaratan tertentu seperti bersikap shidq (jujur dan benar) dalam perilakunya, sabar dalam ketaatan kepada Allah, menunaikan segala kewajiban, menjaga hukum dan perundang-undangan (al-hudud) Allah, mempertahankan posisi kedekatannya kepada Allah. Dalam keadaan ini, menurut at-Tirmidzi, seorang wali mengalami kenaikan peringkat sehingga berada pada posisi yang demikian dekat dengan Allah, kemudian ia berada di hadapan-Nya, da n menyibukkan diri dengan Allah sehingga lupa dari segala sesuatu selain Allah.

Karena kedekatannya dengan Allah, seorang wali memperoleh `ishmah (pemeliharaan) dan karamah (kemuliaan) dari Allah. menurutnya, ada tiga jenis `ishmah dalam Islam.
Pertama, `ishmah al-anbiya' (ishmah para Nabi) merupakan sesuatu yang wajib; baik berdasarkan argumentasi `aqliyyah seperti dikemukakan Mu'tazilah maupun berdasarkan argumentasi sam`iyyah.
Kedua, `ishmah al-awliya' (merupakan sesuatu yang mungkin); tidak ada keharusan untuk menetapkan `ishmah bagi para wali dan tidak berdosa untuk menafikannya dari diri mereka, tidak juga termasuk ke dalam keyakinan agama (`aqa'id al-din); melainkan merupakan karamah dari Allah kepada mereka. Allah melimpahkan `ishmah ke dalam hati siapa saja yang dikehendaki- Nya di antara mereka.
Ketiga, `ishmah al-`ammah, `ishmah secara umum , melalui jalan al-asbab, sebab-sebab tertentu yang menjadikan seseorang terpelihara dari perbuatan maksiat.

'I shmah yang dimiliki para wali dan orang-orang beriman, menurut at-Tirmidzi, bertingkat-tingkat. Bagi umumnya orang-orang yang beriman, `ishmah berarti terpelihara dari kekufuran dan dari terus menerus berbuat dosa; sedangkan bagi para wali ishmah berarti terjaga (mahfuzh) dari kesalahan sesuai dengan derajat, jenjang, dan maqamat mereka. Masing-masing mereka mendapatkan `ishmah sesuai dengan peringkat kewaliannya.

Inti pengertian 'ishmah al-awliya' terletak pada makna al-hirasah (pengawasan) , berupa cahaya `ishmah (anwar al-ishmah) yang menyinari relung jiwa (hanaya al-nafs) dan berbagai gejala yang muncul dari kedalaman al-nafs, tempat persembunyian al-nafs (makamin al-nafs), sehingga al-nafs tidak menemukan jalan untuk mengambil bagian dalam aktivitas seorang wali. Ia dalam keadaan suci dan tidak tercemari berbagai kotoran al-nafs ( adnas al-nafs ).

Adapun yang dimaksud karamah al-awliya' tiada lain, kemuliaan, kehormatan,( al-ikram) ; penghargaan (al-taqdir); dan p ersahabatan (al-wala) yang dimiliki para wali Allah berkat penghargaan, kecintaan dan pertolongan Allah kepada mereka. Karamah al-awliya itu, dalam pandangan Hakim at-Tirmidzi, merupakan salah satu ciri para wali secara lahiriah (`alamat al-awliya' fi al-zhahir) yang juga dinamakannya al-ayat atau tanda-tanda.

Hakim at-Tirmidzi membagi karamat al-awliya ke dalam dua bagian. Pertama, karamah yang bersifat ma`nawi atau al-karamat al-ma`nawiyyah. Karamah yang pertama merupakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan adat kebiasaan secara fisik-inderawi, seperti kemampuan seseorang unrtuk berjalan di atas air atau berjalan di udara. Sedangkan karamah yang kedua merupakan ke-istiqamah- an seorang hamba di dalam menjalin hubungan dengan Allah, baik secara lahiriah maupun secara batiniah yang menyebabkan hijab tersingkap dari kalbunya hingga ia mengenal kekasihnya, serta merasa ketentraman dengan Allah. At-Tirmidzi memaparkan karamah yang kedua sebagai yang berikut:

Kemudian Tuhan memandang wali Allah dengan pandangan rahmat. Maka Tuhan pun dari perbendaharaan rububiyyah menaburkan karamah yang bersifat khusus kepadanya sehingga ia (wali Allah) itu berada pada maqam hakikat kehambaan (al-haqiqah al-ubudiyyah) . Kemudian Tuhan pun mendekatkan kepada-Nya, memanggil nya, menghormati dan meninggikannya. Menyayanginya dan menyerunya. Maka wali pun menghampiri Tuhan ketika ia mendengar seru-Nya. Mengokohkan (posisi)-nya dan menguatkannya; memelihara dan menolongnya; sehingga ia meresponi dan menyambut seruan-Nya.Dalam kesunyian ia memanggil-Nya. Setiap saat ia munajat kepada-Nya. Ia pun memanggil kekasihnya. Ia tidak mengenal Tuhan selain Allah.

Orang yang menolak karamah al-awliya', menurut at-Tirmidzi, disebabkan mereka tidak mengetahui persoalan ini kecuali kulitnya saja. Mereka tidak mengetahui perlakuan Allah terhadap para wali. Sekiranya orang tersebut mengetahui hal-ihwal para wali dan perlakuan Allah terhadap mereka; niscaya mereka tida k akan menolaknya. Penolakan mereka terhadap karamah al-awliya', menurut at-Tirmidzi, disebabkan oleh kadar akses mereka terhadap Allah hanya sebatas menegaskan-Nya; bersungguh-sungguh di dalam mewujudkan kejujuran (al-shidq); bersikap benar dalam mewujudkan kesungguhan sehingga meraih posisi al-qurbah (dekat dengan Allah).

Sementara mereka buta terhadap karunia dan akses Allah kepada hamba-hamba pilihan-Nya. Demikian juga buta terhadap cinta (mahabbah) dan kelembutan (ra'fah) Allah kepada para wali. Apabila mereka mendengar sedikit tentang hal ini, mereka bingung dan menolaknya.

Adapun derajat kewalian, dalam pandangan al-Tirmidzi, dapat diraih dengan terpadunya dua aspek penting, yakni karsa Allah kepada seorang hamba dan kesungguhan pengabdian seorang kepada Allah. Aspek pertama merupakan wewenang Allah secara mutlak; sedangkan aspek kedua merupakan perjuangan seorang hamba dalam mendekatkan diri kepada Allah. Menurut at-Tirmidzi, ada dua jalur yang biasa ditempuh oleh seorang sufi guna meraih derajat kewalian.

Jalur pertama disebut thariqah al-minnah (jalan golongan yang mendapat anugerah) sedangkan jalur kedua disebut thariq ashhab al-shidq (jalan golongan yang benar dalam beribadah). Melalui jalur pertama, seorang sufi meraih derajat kewalian di hadapan Allah semata-mata karena karunia Allah yang diberi kan kepada siapa saja yang dikendaki Allah di antara hamba-hamba- Nya. Sedangkan melalui jalur kedua, seorang sufi meraih derajat kewalian berkat keikhlasan dan kesungguhannya di dalam beribadah kepada Allah. Seseorang yang meraih derajat kewalian melalui jalur kedua disebut wali haqq Allah atau awliya' huquq Allah dalam bentuk jamak.

Menurut at-Tirmidzi derajat kewalian yang diraih melalui jalur kedua diperoleh setelah seorang sufi bertaubat dari segala dosa dan bertekad bulat untuk membuktikan sesungguhan taubatnya dengan konsisten di dalam menunaikan segala yang diwajibkan; menjaga al-hudud (hukum dan perundang-undangan Al lah) dan mengurangi al-mubahat (hal-hal yang dibolehkan); kemudian memperhatikan aspek batin dan menjaga kesuciannya dengan seksama.

Seorang sufi yang meraih derajat kewalian (al-walayah) melalui jalur kedua desebut wali haqq Allah, karena sufi itu telah mencurahkan seluruh perhatian dan usahanya untuk menjaga hak Allah. Perjuangan yang demikian berat ini telah menambah kesucian hati sufi tersebut. Hatinya menjadi terformat sedemikian rupa dengan sifat Allah al-Haqq sehingga al-Haqq menjadi salah satu sifatnya yang mendominasi perasaannya yang terdalam (al-wujdan) dan membimbing seluruh perilakunya.

Tidaklah seorang sufi itu mengucapkan sesuatu kecuali melalui Allah al-Haqq; tidaklah melakukan sesuatu kecuali menuju Allah al-Haqq; dan tidaklah dia diam kecuali bersama Allah al-Haqq. Maka al-Haqq senantiasa bersama-Nya dalam berbagai keadaan. Para wali yang memiliki kualifikasi ini disebut juga al-awliya al-shadiqin.

Sementara itu, memperoleh derajat al-walayah mel alui jalur pertama, thariqah al-Minnah, terbagi kedalam dua proses. Pertama, anugerah kewalian itu diperoleh dengan tanpa usaha sebelumnya. Melalui proses ini orang yang menerima anugerah al-walayah merasakan adanya kekuatan yang menarik dirinya kepada kualitas al-walayah tersebut. Para sufi yang meraih derajat kewalian melalui proses ini disebut al-mujtabun (yang diangkat) atau al-mujzubun (yang ditarik). Kedua, anugerah kewalian itu diperoleh karena ada prakondisi sebelumnya.

Derajat al-walayah yang diberikan melalui proses kedua ini mengandung pengertian bahwa anugerah al-walayah itu diberikan oleh Allah kepada seseorang yang telah berada di dalam maqam al-shidq, suatu kedudukan terhormat di hadapan Allah yang hanya bisa ditempati oleh para sufi yang telah memiliki kualifikasi wali di antara al-awliya al-shadiqin. Hal ini terjadi semata-mata karena kasih sayang Allah kepadanya.

Derajat kewalian dan kenabian, menurut at-Tirmidzi, merupakan anugerah Allah. Allah tela h memilih di antara hamba-hamba- Nya menjadi al-anbiya (Nabi-Nabi) dan awliya (para wali). Kemudian Allah melebihkan derajat sebagian al-anbiya atas sebagian yang lain. Sebagaimana Allah melebihkan sebagian derajat al-awliya atas sebagian yang lain. Kelebihan Nabi Muhammad SAW. atas para Nabi yang lain adalah kedudukannya sebagai khatam al-nubuwwah yang merupa kan hujjat Allah bagi makhluk-Nya pada hari kiamat, karena tiada seorang pun di antara al-anbiya yang mendapat kedudukan setinggi ini.

Hujjat Allah yang menjadi inti khatam al-nubuwwah tersebut tiada lain, qadam shidq, yakni kesaksian Allah bahwa Nabi Muhammad SAW. memiliki shidq al-`ubudiyyah (kesungguhan dalam kehambaan). Dengan qadam shidq tersebut Nabi Muhammad SAW. mendahului barisan para Nabi dan Rasul. Kemudian Allah menyambutnya dan menempatkannya di dalam al-maqam al-mahmud pada al-kursi. Dengan demikian para Nabi mengetahui bahwa Nabi Muhammad SAW. adalah orang yamg paling mengenal Allah. Beliau diberi bendera pujian (liwa al-hamd) dan kunci kemulian (mafatih al-karam). Oleh sebab itu, khatam al-anbiyyin, menurut at-Tirmidzi, bukan karena Nabi Muhammad SAW. paling akhir diutus; melainkan karena al-nubuwwah telah sempurna secara total pada diri Nabi Muhammad SAW. sehingga dia menjadi jantung kenabian (qalb al-nubuwwah) karena kesempurnaannya; kemudian al-nubuwwah ditutup (pada diri beliau).

Bertitik tolak dari pandangannya tentang al-anbiya dan al-awliya, at-Tirmidzi memandang bahwa khatam al-awliya (pamungkas para wali) adalah al-wali al-majdzub yang memegang kepemimpinan (al-imamah) atas para wali. Di tangannya terdapat bendera kewalian (liwa al-walayah). Para wali seluruhnya membutuhkan syafa'at dari padanya; sebagaimana para Nabi membutuhkan syafa'at dari Nabi Muhammad SAW. Ia memperoleh bagian kenabian yang paling sempurna; sehingga ia dekat dengan al-anbiya; bahkan hampir mendahuluinya; sebagaimana tergambar pada hadits yang berikut:

"Sesungguhnya diantara hamba-hamba Allah, ada orang yang bukan Nabi dan bukan syuhada; namun, banyak Nabi dan syuhada yang ingin seperti mereka, karena derajat mereka disisi Allah `Azza wa jalla." Mereka bertanya, "Wahai Rasulullah, siapakah mereka? Beliau bersabda: "Mereka adalah suatu kaum yang saling mencintai dengan motivasi karena Allah; padahal bukan di antara kerabat mereka, juga bukan karena harta yang saling mereka berikan. Demi Allah, wajah mereka niscaya laksana cahaya, mereka berada di atas cahaya. Mereka tidak merasa sedih, ketika orang-orang bersedih. Kemudian beliau membacakan satu ayat:
(Q.S. Yunus: 62).

Maqam-nya (dihadapan Allah) berada pada peringkat tertinggi para wali (fi a`ala manazil al-awliya). Ia adalah pengikut Nabi Muhammad SAW. Maka sebagaimana Nabi Muhammad SAW. menjadi hujjah bagi para Nabi; wali ini pun menjadi hujjah bagi para wali(al-awliya)

Kecuali itu, al-Hakim at-Tirmidzi menghubungkan konsep khatam al-awliya dengan konsep manusia sempurna. Menurutnya, khatam al-awliya ialah manusia yang telah mencapai ma`rifah yang sempurna tentang Tuhan. Dengan demikian, ia pun mendapatkan cahaya dari Tuhan, bahkan mendapatkan quwwah ilahiyyah (daya Ilahi). Menurut at-Tirmidzi, ada empat puluh orang dari kalangan umat Nabi Muhammad SAW. yang mendapat kedudukan sebagai wali, satu di antara empat puluh itu disebut khatam al-awliya sebagaimana Nabi Muhammad SAW. menjadi khatam al-anbiya.

Sementara itu, Abu Yazid al-Busthami (w.264H/877M. ) memperkenalkan konsep al-wali al-kamil (wali yang sempurna). Menurutnya, wali yang sempurna ialah orang yang telah mencapai ma`rifah yang sempurna tentang Tuhan, ia telah terbakar oleh api Tuhannya. Ma`rifah yang sempurna akan membawa seorang wali fana' dalam sifat-sifat ketuhanan. Wali yang fana' dalam nama Allah, al-zhahir (yang nyata), akan dapat menyaksikan qudrah Tuhan ; wali yang fana' dalam nama-Nya, al-bathin (yang tersembunyi) akan dapat menyaksikan rahasia-rahasia alam; wali yang fana' dalam nama-Nya, al-akhir (yang akhir), akan menyaksi kan masa depan.

Kedudukan khatam al-awliya merupakan anugerah Allah. Allah memberikan al-khatm (penutupan [kewalian]) kepadanya agar pada hari kiamat hati Nabi Muhammad SAW. merasa tenteram. Para wali pun mengakui kelebihan wali ini atas mereka. Ia muncul menjelang terjadinya kiamat dan menjadi hujjat Allah bagi seluruh penganut paham monoteisme (al-muwahhidin) yang datang sesudahnya.

Pemikiran al-Hikam at-Tirmidzi tentang khatm al-walayah lebih jauh dikembangkan oleh Ibnu Arabi. Menurut Ibnu Arabi, konsep al-khatm (penutupan) mengandung dua pengertian. Pertama, al-khatm berarti Allah telah menutup kewalian secara umum (al-walayah al-ammah). Kedua, al-khatm dalam pengertian Allah telah menutup kewalian umat Nabi Muhammad SAW. (al-walayah al-muhammadiyah) .

Khatm al-walayah dalam pengertian yang pertama berada pada diri Nabi Isa as. Beliau adalah wali dengan kenabian mutlak (al-nubuwwah al-muthlaqah) yang muncul pada zaman ummat (Nabi Muhammad) ini. Kewalian Nabi Isa terputus dari nubuwwat al-tasyri', yakni kenabian khusus dengan kewenangan menetapkan syari'at agama dan kerasulannya. Nabi Isa turun di akhir zaman sebagai pewaris (Nabi Muhammad SAW.). Dan khatam [al-walayah] (pamungkas kewalian).

Tidak ada wali sesudahnya dengan kenabian mutlak sekalipun, sebagaimana Nabi Muhammad SAW. sebagai khatam al-nubuwwah (pamungkas kenabian) tidak ada Nabi sesudah beliau dengan nubuwwat al-tasyri'. Sedangkan khatam al-walayah dalam pengertian yang kedua berada pada diri seorang laki-laki dari kalangan orang-orang terhormat.

Pengetahuan tentang syari'at (al-ilm al-syari'i) � yang menjadi dasar nubuwwat al-tasyri' diwahyukan kepada seorang Rasul melalui malaikat. Sedangkan pengetahuan batin (al-`ilm al-bathini) yang dimiliki wali, baik dalam kapa sitasnya sebagai Rasul, Nabi, maupun wali saja; bersifat pancaran dari seorang khatam al-awliya. Adapun khatam al-awliya mendapat kan secara menyeluruh dari sumber pancaran ruhaniah (manba`al-faydl al-ruhi); yakni ruh Muhammad atau al-haqiqah al-Muhammadiyah.

Ibnu Arabi menghubungkan konsepsi khatam al-awliya dengan kemampuan menangkap al-`athaya (pemberian dan anugerah) Allah. Menurut Ibnu Arabi, ada dua jenis al-`athaya (pemberian) yakni yang bersifat dzatiyyah dan yang bersifat asma'iyyah. Adapun al-`athaya al-dzatiyyah tidak terjadi kecuali melalui tajalli ilahi; sedangkan tajalli merupakan pengetahuan tertinggi tentang Tuhan. Pengetahuan ini tidak diberikan kecuali kepada khatam al-rusul (pamungkas para utusan) dan khatam al-awliya (pamungkas para wali).

Tiada seorang pun di antara al-anbiya dan al-rusul dapat mengalami tajalli al-dzat kecuali melalui misykah, teropong, khatam al-rusul; dan tiada seorang pun al-awliya mengalami tajalli al-dzat kecuali melal ui misykah, teropong, khatam al-awliya bahkan al-anbiya dan al-rusul pun tidak dapat mengalami tajalli al-dzat kecuali melalui misykat al-khatam al-awliya'; meskipun khatam al-awliya merupa kan pengikut khatam al-rusul dalam syari'at yang dibawanya.

Dalam pandangan Ibnu Arabi, khatam al-anbiya mempunyai kedudukan yang sebanding dengan khatam al-awliya. Menurutnya setiap Nabi sejak zaman Nabi Adam hingga Nabi terakhir; tiada seorang pun di antara mereka, kecuali mengambil dari misykat (teropong) khatam al-nabiyyin; meskipun khatam al-nabiyyin tersebut secara historis muncul terakhir. Hal ini sejalan dengan sabda Nabi Muhammad SAW.: Aku sudah menjadi Nabi; sedangkan Adam di antara air dan tanah. Sedangkan para Nabi selain Nabi Muhammad SAW. menjadi Nabi setelah mereka diutus (ke dunia).

Demikian juga khatam al-awliya telah menjadi wali, ketika Adam masih berada di antara air dan tanah; sedangkan para wali yang lain menjadi wali setelah mereka memperoleh syarat-sya rat kewalian (al-walayah) , yakni setelah diri mereka tersifati oleh al-akhlaq al-ilahiyyah atau akhlak Tuhan, terutama berkenaan dengan pernyataan Allah sendiri yang menyebut diri-Nya al-wali al-hamid (Wali yang Maha Terpuji).

[Dikutip dari milis Daarut Tauhiid]