Senin, 28 Februari 2011

Kota Medan adalah ibu kota provinsi Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. Kota ini merupakan kota terbesar di Pulau Sumatera Kota Medan merupakan pintu gerbang wilayah Indonesia bagian barat dan juga sebagai pintu gerbang bagi para wisatawan untuk menuju objek wisata Brastagi di daerah dataran tinggi Karo, objek wisata Orangutan di Bukit Lawang, Danau Toba.

Menurut Tengku Lukman Sinar, SH dalam bukunya �Riwayat Hamparan Perak� yang terbit tahun 1971, yang mendirikan kampung Medan adalah Raja Guru Patimpus, nenek moyang Datuk Hamparan Perak (Dua Belas Kota) dan Datuk Sukapiring, yaitu dua dari empat kepala suku Kesultanan Deli.

John Anderson, seorang pegawai Pemerintah Inggeris yang berkedudukan di Penang, pernah berkunjung ke Medan tahun 1823. Dalam bukunya bernama �Mission to the Eastcoast of Sumatera�, edisi Edinburg tahun 1826, Medan masih merupakan satu kampung kecil yang berpenduduk sekitar 200 orang. Di pinggir sungai sampai ke tembok Mesjid kampung Medan, ada dilihatnya susunan batu-batu granit berbentuk bujur sangkar yang menurut dugaannya berasal dari Candi Hindu di Jawa.

Menurut legenda, dizaman dahulu kala pernah hidup di Kesultanan Deli Lama kira-kira 10 km dari kampung Medan, di Deli Tua sekarang seorang putri yang sangat cantik dan karena kecantikannya diberi nama Putri Hijau. Kecantikan puteri itu tersohor kemana-mana, mulai dari Aceh sampai ke ujung utara Pulau Jawa.Sultan Aceh jatuh cinta pada puteri itu dan melamarnya untuk dijadikan permaisurinya. Lamaran Sultan Aceh itu ditolak oleh kedua saudara laki-laki Putri Hijau. Sultan Aceh sangat marah karena penolakannya itu dianggap sebagai penghinaan terhadap dirinya. Maka pecahlah perang antara kesultanan Aceh dan kesulatanan Deli.

Menurut legenda yang tersebut di atas, dengan mempergunakan kekuatan gaib, seorang dari saudara Putri Hijau menjelma menjadi seekor ular naga dan yang seorang lagi sebagai sepucuk meriam yang tidak henti-hentinya menembaki tentara Aceh hingga akhir hayatnya.

Kesultanan Deli Lama mengalami kekalahan dalam peperangan itu dan karena kecewa, Putera mahkota yang menjelma menjadi meriam itu, meledak bagian belakangnya terlontar ke Labuhan Deli dan bagian depannya kedataran tinggi Karo, kira-kira 5 km dari Kabanjahe.Pangeran yang seorang lagi yang telah berubah menjadi seekor ular naga itu, mengundurkan diri melalui satu saluran dan masuk ke dalam Sungai Deli disatu tempat yang berdekatan dengan Jalan Putri Hijau sekarang. Arus sungai membawanya ke Selat Malaka dari tempat ia meneruskan perjalanannya yang terakhir di ujung Jambo Aye dekat Lok Seumawe, Aceh.Putri Hijau ditawan dan dimasukkan dalam sebuah peti kaca yang dimuat ke dalam kapal untuk seterusnya dibawa ke Aceh.Ketika kapal sampai di ujung Jambo Aye, Putri Hijau mohon diadakan satu upacara untuknya sebelum peti diturunkan dari kapal. Atas permintaannya, harus diserahkan padanya sejumlah beras dan beribu-ribu telur. Permohonan tuan Putri itu dikabulkan.

Tetapi, baru saja upacara dimulai, tiba-tiba berhembus angin ribut yang maha dahsyat disusul oleh gelombang-gelombang yang sangat tinggi. Dari dalam laut muncul abangnya yang telah menjelma menjadi ular naga itu dengan menggunakan rahangnya yang besar itu, diambilnya peti tempat adiknya dikurung, lalu dibawanya masuk ke dalam laut.

Legenda ini sampai sekarang masih terkenal dikalangan orang-orang Deli dan malahan juga dalam masyarakat Melayu di Malaysia. Di Deli Tua masih terdapat reruntuhan benteng dari Puri yang berasal dari zaman Putri Hijau, sedangkan sisa meriam, penjelmaan abang Putri Hijau, dapat dilihat di halaman Istana Maimun, Medan.

Kota Medan Pada Masa Penjajahan Jepang

Tahun 1942 penjajahan Belanda berakhir di Sumatera yang ketika itu Jepang mendarat dibeberapa wilayah seperti Jawa, Kalimantan, Sulawesi dan khusus di Sumatera Jepang mendarat di Sumatera Timur.

Tentara Jepang yang mendarat di Sumatera adalah tentara XXV yang
berpangkalan di Shonanto yang lebih dikenal dengan nama Singapore, tepatnya mereka mendarat tanggal 11 malam 12 Maret 1942. Pasukan ini terdiri dari Divisi Garda Kemaharajaan ke-2 ditambah dengan Divisi ke-18 dipimpin langsung oleh Letjend. Nishimura. Ada empat tempat pendaratan mereka ini yakni Sabang, Ulele, Kuala Bugak (dekat Peurlak Aceh Timur sekarang) dan Tanjung Tiram (kawasan Batubara sekarang).

Pasukan tentara Jepang yang mendarat di kawasan Tanjung Tiram inilah yang masuk ke Kota Medan, mereka menaiki sepeda yang mereka beli dari rakyat disekitarnya secara barter. Mereka bersemboyan bahwa mereka membantu orang Asia karena mereka adalah saudara Tua orang-orang Asia sehingga mereka dieluelukan menyambut kedatangannya.

Ketika peralihan kekuasaan Belanda kepada Jepang Kota Medan kacau balau, orang pribumi mempergunakan kesempatan ini membalas dendam terhadap orang Belanda. Keadaan ini segera ditertibkan oleh tentara Jepang dengan mengerahkan pasukannya yang bernama � Kempetai � (Polisi Militer Jepang). Dengan masuknya Jepang di Kota Medan keadaan segera berubah terutama pemerintahan sipilnya yang zaman Belanda disebut �Gemeente Bestuur � oleh Jepang dirobah menjadi �Medan Sico� (Pemerintahan Kotapraja). Yang menjabat pemerintahan sipil di tingkat Kotapraja Kota Medan ketika itu hingga berakhirnya kekuasaan Jepang bernama Hoyasakhi. Untuk tingkat keresidenan di Sumatera Timur karena masyarakatnya heterogen disebut Syucokan yang ketika itu dijabat oleh T.Nakashima, pembantu Residen disebut dengan Gunseibu.

Penguasaan Jepang semakin merajalela di Kota Medan mereka membuat masyarakat semakin papa, karena dengan kondisi demikianlah menurut mereka semakin mudah menguasai seluruh Nusantara, semboyan saudara Tua hanyalah semboyan saja. Disebelah Timur Kota Medan yakni Marindal sekarang dibangun Kengrohositai sejenis pertanian kolektif. Dikawasan Titi Kuning Medan Johor sekarang tidak jauh dari lapangan terbang Polonia sekarang mereka membangun landasan pesawat tempur Jepang.

Kamis, 17 Februari 2011

Google is a company's most famous United States through its search engine which is also called Google.

Company
Google Inc. (NASDAQ: GOOG) was established on September 7, 1998 at their friend's garage space in Menlo Park, California. In February 1999, the company moved into offices at 165 University Ave., Palo Alto, Calif., before moving to the "Googleplex" at the end of the year.

Search engines
Google is a search engine on the Internet, based in the United States. Google is one of the most popular search engine on the web and receive at least 200 million search queries each day through its Web site and client web sites such as America Online (AOL). Google's headquarters is located (the "Googleplex") in Mountain View, California.

History

Google started two Ph.D. student research projects Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin in early 1996 which developed the theory that a search engine based on mathematical analysis of relationships between Web sites would give better results than by using basic search techniques used at that time. This system was originally called BackRub because it uses backlinks to estimate a site's importance.

Convinced that the pages with the most links to that page from the pages of other relevant web pages that are most relevant, Page and Brin decided to test their thesis as part of their studies - this becomes the foundation for their search engine. They officially formed their company Google Inc. on September 7, 1998.

Google became popular among Internet users because its design is simple and 'clean' and relevant search results. Ads sold by keyword (keyword) so that they become more relevant for users, and the ads are required to use the text-only fixed page design for neat and remains the page loading speed. The concept of selling ads based on keyword preceded by Overture, formerly called GoTo.com. At a time when most other dotcom companies went bankrupt, Google quietly strengthen its influence and gain profit.

In September 2001, Google's ranking mechanism (PageRank) was granted the right U.S. patent. The patent was officially granted to the Leland Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor.

In February 2003, Google bought Pyra Labs, owner of Blogger, a pioneer and leader web site hosting weblogs. This acquisition seemed inconsistent with Google's general mission, but this step makes Google may use information from blog postings to improve the speed and relevance of the articles in Google News.

At the height of glory in early 2004, Google take care of almost 80 percent of all search queries on the Internet through its website and clients like Yahoo, AOL and CNN. Google's share dropped from Google's search technology Yahoo! release in February 2004 in order to use their independent search results.

Other Essay Concerning the History of Google.

Google ...

unique name, unique history

Who does not know with Google. For all the surfers of cyber world must have been very familiar with google this. Google is very popular with search engines in cyberspace jungle. All you need do is just typing the desired password then google will track and looking for any information desired.

Google with two "o" was unique, because if the data search results are found, the number of "o" will appear as much as that obtained by the Web search engine.

Google the word comes from the word Googlo. The word was invented by Milton Sirotta, nephew of a mathematician Edward Kasner of the U.S.. Sirotta make the term Googlo to mention the number 1 (one) followed 100 points 0 (zero), therefore the use of the word Google is a reflection of the word Googlo.

But them know you are, Google is not only unique from the home he said. Google also has a unique historical background. Google was born of a meeting of two young men who happen by accident in 1995 ago. Larry Page, an alumnus of the University of Michigan, who was enjoying a weekend visit, accidentally met with Sergey Brin, one of the students who obtained escort duties around Lary.

In a meeting earlier accident, the two Google founders are often involved lengthy discussions. Both have different opinions and views that are often involved debate. However, differences in their thinking would produce a unique approach in solving one of the biggest challenges in the computer world. Namely, the problem of how to recover data from massive data sets.

In January 1996, Larry and Sergey began to collaborate in making search engine called BackRub. A year later, their unique approach of network analysis the reputation BackRub. The news about new techniques search engine immediately spread to all corners of campus.

Larry and Sergey continues to improve Google technologies throughout early 1998. Both also began looking for investors to develop the sophistication of Google's technology.

Scoop was intercepted. They receive an injection of funds from the Friends campus, Andy Bechtolsheim, a founder of Sun Microsystems. Pertemuana they occur in the early morning on the porch of the Stanford faculty student dormitory, in Palo Alto. Larry and Sergey gave a brief demo because Andy did not have a long time.

Through the demo that Andy agreed to provide funding assistance in the form of a check for $ 100 thousand dollars. Unfortunately, the check was written on behalf of Google. And then a company called Google has not been established by Sergey and Larry.

Investment by Andy into a dilemma. Larry and Sergey can not compose poem checks before there is a legal institution called the company Google. Therefore, the two founders of Google is again working hard in search of investment. They are looking for funders from among family, friends, and colleagues collected funds until around 1 million dollars. And finally, the company Google also can be established on 7 Septembar 1998 and officially opened in Menlo Park, California.

Google's mission is "to gather the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful." Google's philosophy includes slogans such as "Don` t be evil ", and" Work should menatang and the challenge should be fun ", describe a relaxed corporate culture.

Currently Google is a company predicated number one in the top 100 companies are the most popular in America, with a total staff of about 10 thousand people.

Rabu, 16 Februari 2011

Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson) (OMX: Eric B, NASDAQ: ERIC), one of the largest companies in Sweden, Ericsson is a leading provider of telecommunications and data communications systems, and related services, which include a variety of technologies, including in particular the cellular network. And indirectly through its subsidiaries, which also has an important role in mobile devices, and cable television and IPTV.

Founded in 1876 as a store of equipment for repair by telegram Lars Magnus Ericsson, entered August 18, 1918. Based in the cyst, the City of Stockholm, since 2003, LM Ericsson is considered part of the so-called "Wireless Valley". Since the mid-1990s, Ericsson is very broad in Stockholm contributed to transform the capital into one of the research centers of information technology (IT) in Europe. Ericsson has offices and operations in more than 150 countries, with over 20,000 employees in Sweden, and also a significant presence, for example, China, Britain, United States, Finland, Ireland and Brazil.

Standing HISTORY

Lars Magnus Ericsson started with a phone in youth associations as an instrument maker. He worked for a company that makes equipment for firms telegram Telegrafverket Sweden. In 1876, at age 30, began the construction of a telegraph repair shop with the help of his friend Carl Johan Andersson. Shops in central Stockholm (No. 15 on Drottninggatan, the main shopping street) and improve your mobile phone abroad. In 1878 Ericsson began making and selling its own phone equipment. The phone is not technically innovative, as most were made by other factories in the United States. In 1878, he made a joint agreement to provide telephone and providing frameworks for the first telecommunications company in Sweden, Stockholm Allm�nna Telefonaktiebolag.

Also in 1878, local importers Ericsson phone Numa Peterson assumed to adjust some of the Bell Telephone Company.Dari here he was inspired to buy a Siemens mobile phone and further analysis of the technology. (Ericsson Siemens had received scholarships in previous years.) Being a company that works to repair and trains Telegrafverket Sweden (Swedish Railway), you are familiar with Bell and Siemens Halske telephone. He is improving the design to produce an instrument of superior quality. At the end of 'year he began the manufacture of the phone, a lot of pictures of the Siemens mobile phone, and the first product that was completed in 1879.

With a reputation that has taken hold, Ericsson is a major supplier of telephone equipment in Scandinavia. Because factories can not keep up with demand, works like wood and metal-plating was contracted out. Many of these imported materials, so that in the next decade Ericsson purchased in a number of companies to ensure essential supplies such as brass, steel wire and hard rubber.

The high price of equipment and services that led Bell Henrik Tore Cedergren to form an independent company in 1883, telephone call Stockholm Allm�nna Telefonaktiebolag. Like Bell does not provide facilities to its competitors, has signed an agreement with Ericsson, who delivered the material for a new telephone network. In 1918 the company joined Ericsson Allm�nna Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson.

In 1884, an engineer named Anton Aven in Stockholm Per Year Telefonaktiebolag earphones are fused and spokesman for the (then) in standard telephone handset.Ericsson take these results and incorporated into products from Ericsson, which begins with a phone called the dachshund.

International expansion

As production grew at the end of 1890, and the Swedish market seems to be reaching saturation point, Ericsson was able to expand into foreign markets through a series of agents. Britain and Russia are starting to market Ericsson. This eventually led to the establishment of factories in these countries. This is partly to improve opportunities for local contracts, and partly because the factory in Sweden to maintain supply. In England, the National Telephone Company (National Telephone Company) have included Ericsson equipment for some time and is a customer utama.Pada 1897, the UK has contributed 28% of sales were other subscribers Ericsson.Negara Ericsson also pushed by rapid growth of telephone service in Sweden. Australia and New Zealand, at the end of 1890 was the largest market for Ericsson in Europe.

Even if they are successful in other places, Ericsson does not make significant sales in the United States. The group of Bell and local companies, such as Kellogg and Automatic Electric had already dominated the market. In contrast, sales in Mexico quite well and lead to further development in the countries of South America. South Africa and China also produce significant sales. With multinational companies now, and well developed, Lars Ericsson has resigned from the company in 1901.

Selasa, 15 Februari 2011

Volleyball game, volleyball invented by William G. Morgan in 1985. he was a physical education coach at the Young Men Christian Association (YMCA) in the city of Holyoke, Massachusetts, AmerikaSerikat. The name of the game in the beginning called "Minonette" is almost similar to badminton game. Number of players here is not limited in accordance with its original purpose, namely to develop physical fitness workers do physical exercises in addition to the missal. William G. Morgan later continue his idea to develop the game in order to reach the sport that competed.

The name of the game then became "volley ball, which means more or less made volibola
Volleyball game entered the official events in PON II, 1951 in Jakarta and Yogyakarta POM I in 1951. after 1962, the development of volleyball bnola like mushrooms grow in the rainy season the number of volleyball clubs in all corners of the country.

This is evident also with the participant data match in the national championship. PON and other sporting parties, where the figures show an increase in number. It may be said to date a volleyball game in Indonesia ranks third after football and badminton.

For the first time in history volley ball Indonesia, PBVSI been able to send Indonesian junior volleyball team to the World Championships in Athens Greece that runs from 3-12 September 1989. junior men's volleyball team is coached by Yano Indonesia Hadian Kanwar assisted by trainers, and coaches from Japan Hideto Nishioka, whereas physical trainer handed over to Engkos Kosasih from the field of coaching PKON (national sports health center) OFFICE Menpora. In men's volleyball world championship, as the winner is:

* The Soviet Union
* Cuba
* Japanese
* Greece
* Brazil
* Poland
* Bulagaria

While new to Indonesia's own ranks to 15.
In the period under the leadership of General chairman PBVSI General (Pol) Drs. Mochamad Sanusi, perbolavolian increasing both the number of existing associations and of the smooth system of competition that took place,; up to activities conducted both inside and outside the country.

Demonstration game hosted by both teams, as well as explanations that have been submitted by the Morgan-have also brought a change in Mintonette. The first change that happened in the game came on his name. At the suggestion of Professor Alfred T. Halstead is also watching and paying attention to demonstration and explanation of Morgan, the name was changed to Mintonette-Volleyball (volleyball). Selection of Volleyball as a substitute name-even Mintonette not done without consideration.

Volleyball The name was chosen based on the major movements contained in that game, the movement hit the ball before the ball fell to the ground (volleyball). At first, the name was spelled-Volleyball separately (two words), namely "Volley Ball." Then in 1952, the Administrative Committee USVBA (United States Volleyball Association) chose to spell the name in one word, namely "Volleyball". USVBA volleyball is a sport of unity contained in the United States. This association was first established in 1928, and currently USVBA better known by the name of USAV (USA Voleyball). After the demonstration, the YMCA committee promised to learn the rules of the game that has been written and submitted by Morgan.

Senin, 14 Februari 2011

The Maya are a group of tribes who lived in the Yucatan peninsula, Central America, bordering the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the Caribbean Sea to the east.

Stone Age tribes in achieving greatness in the field of technology (250 AD to 925 AD), resulting in a unique form of work and civilization such as buildings (Chichen Itza), agriculture (drainage canals), maize and latex, the well, called "cenotes".

The way they communicate and document the writings: His writing using pictures and symbols, called "glyphs". There are two kinds of glyphs: namely that displays the whole image of the object intended, and the type that describes something in accordance with the tribe said.

For example the word "balam: jaguar", depicted with animal heads, or with three syllables "ba" - "la" - "ma" which consists of three pictures a kind of cup / shell.

This tribe is also known beauty person, by making a flat cranium, by tying boards on the forehead and the back shell on infant / child birth, so that by the time they are adults feel elegant by having a flat forehead bone.

The weapon used is called "Atlatl", which is a kind of bow and arrow.
Nikon Corporation (Nikon, Nikon Corp.) Is a Japanese company specializing in the field of optics and image. Its products include cameras, binoculars, microscopes, measuring instruments. The company was founded in 1917 as Nihon (Nippon) Kogaku Kogyo (?? ?? ?? ????), later renamed (???? ???), on behalf of his camera, in 1988. In 2002, it has 14,000 workers. Nikon is one of the Mitsubishi companies.

Famous products are Nikkor camera lenses, Nikonos underwater cameras, the Nikon F series professional cameras, and digital cameras Nikon D-series.

Nikon's main rivals, including Canon, Minolta, Leica, Pentax, and Olympus.

Nikon Corporation was founded on July 25, 1917 when three leading optical manufacturers merged to form a company, comprehensive, integrated optics, known as Nippon Kogaku KK Tokyo Over the next sixty years, this company developed into a manufacturer of optical lenses (including for the first Canon camera) and equipment used in cameras, binoculars, microscopes and inspection equipment. During World War II the company grew to nineteen factories and 23,000 employees, supplying items such as binoculars, lenses, bomb sights, and the periscope with the Japanese military.


1917.
Nippon Kogaku K.K., or Japan Optical Co.. established as a result of a merger of three smaller optical firms. They produce products such as optical microscopes, telescopes, and optical measurement equipment for industry and science.

1932.
First Nikkor lens photography emerged as a product that varies from a distance of 50mm to 700mm.

1937.
Completing the design for the 50mm f4.5 lens, 3.5, and 2.0. Nikkor appear as original equipment for the Hansa Canon comes out in the same year. Nippon Kogaku actually produce

all lenses for Canon until mid-1947.

1948.
Nikon camera I launched. The development of own products started since 1945. Many of the proposed names like BENTAX, PANNET, NICCA, NIKKA, NIKORET, NIKO and NIKKORETTE. When

NIKKORETTE finally decided as the name of the fi nal, the name was changed back into NIKON just before the final design is produced.


1957.
To produce the best, expert technicians Nikon searching all over the world for new ideas and solutions. Leica when it is the leader in rangefi nder 35mm camera and a lot of camera manufacturers try to imitate it. Nikon dared to try to fix it. After various experiments, the Nikon SP finally released in September. Leh followed in March 1958 S3 and S4 in March 1959.


1959
In May 1959, the first Nikon SLR, the Nikon F, introduced and quickly

become an unwritten standard for fotojurnalis as well as other professional photographers. In introducing the series F, with viewfi nder which can be changed, the layer focus, and lens-lens, Nikon past the Leica as the new leader of the world's cameras.


1971
Nikon F2 easily be a dream camera. It has all the required by professional photographers on an SLR camera that can be purchased. Also has a beautiful shape and a charming tour fi.

1983.
The first compact camera with autofocus Nikon, L35AF, marketed.

1992.
Nikonos RS, underwater cameras first SLR in the world, are marketed.

1997.
Nikon CoolPix 100 digital camera market.

1999.
Camera Nikon D1 professional digital SLR market.

2005.
Nikon D2X digital SLR camera marketed D2HS Nikon digital SLR camera market.

Reference
http://orowsis.wordpress.com/2010/10/06/sejarah-nikon/
http://www.kaskus.us/showthread.php?p=172053919

Minggu, 13 Februari 2011

Sony is an electronics company based in Tokyo, Japan. Right now Sony is the world's largest electronics manufacturer and one of the largest companies in Japan and the world. Sony company traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange with the number 6758 and the New York Stock Exchange as SNE through ADR.

In late 1945, after World War II, Masaru Ibuka started a radio repair shop in a department store building in Nihonbashi, Tokyo. The next year, he was joined by his colleague Akio Morita and they founded a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo KK, which translates in English to Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation. The company built Japan's first tape recorder called the Type-G.

In the early 1950s, Ibuka traveled in the United States and hear about the 'invention of the transistor at Bell Labs. He convinced Bell to license the transistor technology to Japanese companies. While most American companies were researching the transistor for military applications, Ibuka looked to apply it to communications. Although the American companies Regency and Texas Instruments built transistor radios first, it was Ibuka's company that makes them commercially successful for the first time. In August 1955, Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering released the Sony TR-55 transistor radio's first mass-produced. They followed up in December the same year by releasing the Sony TR-72, a product that won the support both within Japan and in export markets, including Canada, Australia, Holland and Germany. Featuring six transistors, push-pull output and greatly enhanced sound quality, the TR-72 continued to be a popular seller into the early 60's.

In May 1956, the company released the TR-6, which featured an innovative slim design and sound quality capable of rivaling portable tube radios. That's for the TR-6 that Sony first contracted "Atchan", a cartoon character created by Fuyuhiko Okabe, to become advertising character. Now known as "Sony Boy", the character first appeared in a cartoon ad holding a TR-6 to his ear, but went on to represent the company in advertisements for various products well into the mid-sixties. The next year, 1957, Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering came out with the TR-63 model, the smallest (112 � 71 � 32 mm) transistor radio commercial production. It was a commercial success worldwide.

University of Arizona professor Michael Brian Schiffer, Ph.D., says, "Sony is not the first, but their transistor radios were the most successful. TR-63 in 1957 penetrate the U.S. market and launched a new industry of consumer microelectronics." In the mid-year 1950 -an, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the young industry of approximately 100,000 units in 1955 to 5,000,000 units by the end of 1968.

sony headquarters moved to Minato, Tokyo from Shinagawa, Tokyo around the end of 2006.

History of SONY:

Sony was founded on May 7, 1946 with the Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering with about 20 employees. Their first consumer product was a rice in the late 1940s. Along with the development of Sony as a large international company, he bought other companies that have longer histories, including Columbia Records (the oldest record company that still exists, was established in 1888).

When Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for names that have been romanized (not language or writing in Japan) to market their company, they strongly considered using their initials, TTK. The reason they did not, is because the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TKK.

The name "Sony" was chosen as a combination of Latin words Sonus, which is the root of sonic and sound, and the English word sonny ("child") who after a combined mean that a small group of young people who have energy and willpower to the creation and innovative idea that will not terbataskan. At that time, it is very strange for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell his name, let alone the use of phonetic characters used in Japanese writing (instead of using Chinese characters). And in 1958 the company began to formally adopt the name "Sony Corporation" as the name of the company.

This step is getting opposition; TTK bank which is a sponsor at the time, Mitsui have strong feelings against the name. They wanted a name such as Sony Electronic Industries, or Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however, because he did not want the company name associated with any particular industry. Finally, the Chairman and President Masaru Ibuka Bandai gave its approval.

In 1988, Sony bought CBS (Columbia) Records Group from CBS. He then called the "Sony Music Entertainment".

In 2000, Sony had sales of U.S. $ 63 billion and 189,700 employees. Sony acquired the company Aiwa

in 2002, Sony also has a television channel in India and channels dedicated to Indian community in Europe.

Sony Standard:
Sony has historically been notable for their own creations to impose standards for recording and storage technologies, which often differ from other manufacturers / from trends in the market. The most famous of all is the video cassette format war in the early 1980s, when Sony marketed its Betamax system for video cassette recorder against the VHS format developed by JVC. In the end, VHS gained critical mass in the marketplace and become the worldwide standard for consumer VCRs and Sony was forced to succumb.

Sony is also using their MemoryStick memory modules for digital cameras and other portable equipment, a few other companies use. Sony is also trying to compete with Iomega Zip drives and Imation Superdisk through artificial HiFD them but failed big.

Development
On July 20, 2004, the European Union approved the 50-50 merger between Sony Music Entertainment and BMG. The new company will be called Sony BMG and Universal will be with fellow RIAA, control 60% of the world music market.

On 13 September 2004, a Sony-led consortium completed the agreement to purchase the famous film studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for $ 5 billion, including $ 2 million in debt. (But ane believe, this debt can be paid off by film2 quality that will diahasilkan Metro-Goldwin-Meyer next, example james bond series,)

The following products produced by sony:
TV = Sony has a BRAVIA TV range that has fitur2 sophisticated, such as definition full hd 1080p, HDMI, USB slot, LED screen triluminos, Motionflow (refine movement), and 10-bit color, and BRAVIA Engine sbagai graphics engine, (TPI most BRAVIA with this sophisticated spec only available in certain series, such as the series X, ZX, EX, and W, for a personal dictionary agan and gentlemen, adalh BRAVIA stands for Best Resolution Audio Visual Integrated Architecture

COMPUTER = VAIO computer from Sony is a series, to personal dictionary agan2, VAIO stands for Visual Audio Intelligence Organiservaio itself has such a powerful laptop jajarn series Z, FW, and AW ,.... ranks of the computer already has a high specification required users ngakses for a variety of applications and heavy media,

MUSIC PLAYER = SONY also has a line of music players, which named WALKMAN, music player lagendaris (before the throne of the king finally fell to the ipod music player) actually own walkman series has an "ultimate her" the walkman series X. walkman series x has been using a touchscreen OLED display, and has a storage capacity of up to 16 and 32 gb,

GAME CONSOLE = SONY also has games, playstation.
We have a lot to know effiel tower which is the pride of Perancis.Menara Eiffel tower is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars on the banks of the Seine in Paris. The tower has become a global icon of France and one of the world famous structure.

This structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance to Exposition, World's Fair that celebrated the French Revolution a century. Actually planning to build the Eiffel tower in Baecelona, for the Universal Exhibition of 1888, but the responsible parties in Barcelona city hall thought strange and expensive, and does not fit with the city. After the rejection of Plan of Barcelona, Eiffel send the draft to the party responsible for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, where he built the tower a year later, in 1889. The tower was inaugurated on March 31, 1889, and opened on May 6. Three hundred workers joined together 18,083 of iron unders (a pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million of nails, in the form of structural by Maurice Koechelin. The risk of accident is very great, to modern skyscrapers the tower is unusual open without the middle level except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took care, including use of the moving pulley block, auxiliary rails and screens, and in this case only one who died.

The tower is getting criticism from the public when it is built, calling it disturbing eyes. Daily newspapers are filled with letters of criticism from the art community in Paris.

Eiffel tower standing licensed for 20 years, which means it must be dismantled in 1909, when ownership transferred to the City of Paris. The city had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower that is easy to tear down) but after this tower proved extremely profitable in terms of communication, the tower was left standing after the permit expires. For example, the military uses it to arrange a taxi Paris on the front lines during the First Battle of the Marne, and the battle was a victory monomen

Jumat, 11 Februari 2011

The Java programming language the first born of The Green Project, which runs for 18 months, from early 1991 to summer 1992. The project is not using a version called Oak. The project was initiated by Patrick Naughton, Mike Sheridan, James Gosling and Bill Joy, along with nine other programmers from Sun Microsystems. One result of this project is the Duke mascot created by Joe Palrang. Project meeting took place in an office building Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park.

Around the summer of 1992 the project was closed by generating a Java program's first Oak, which is intended to control a device with touch screen technology (touch screen), like on a PDA today. This new technology named "* 7A? � (Seven Star). After the era of Star Seven completed, a subsidiary of cable TV plus a few people interested in the project The Green Project. They focus their activities on an office space at 100 Hamilton Avenue, Palo Alto. The new company is getting ahead: the number of employees increased in a short time from 13 to 70 people. At this time span was also determined using the Internet as a medium that bridges the work and ideas between them.

In the early 1990s, the Internet is still a stub, which is used only in academic circles and the military. They make the browser (browser) Mosaic as the basis for beginning to create the first Java browser called Web Runner, inspired by 1980s film, Blade Runner. In the development of the first release, the Web Runner renamed Hot Java. In about March 1995, for the first time the Java source code version 1.0a2 opened. Their success was followed with news for the first time in the newspaper San Jose Mercury News on May 23, 1995. Unfortunately there are divisions among them one day at 04.00 in a hotel room Sheraton Palace. Three of the main leaders of the project, Eric Schmidt and George Paolini from Sun Microsystems along with Marc Andreessen, Netscape form.

Oak name, taken from an oak tree that grows in front of the workspace window "father of Java", James Gosling. Oak name is not used for release versions of Java as a software has been registered with a trademark, so take the name of his successor to "Java". The name is taken from the ground pure coffee beans directly from (black coffee) Gosling's favorite.

Early versions of Java
An early version of Java ditahun 1996 for a release version so called Java Version 1.0. Java version includes many standard packages are being developed at the beginning of the next version:


* Java.lang: Appropriation class basic elements.
* Java.io: The Allocation of input and output classes, including the use of the file.
* Java.util: Appropriation complementary classes such as class data structure and class calendar class.
* Java.net: Appropriation class TCP / IP, which enables to communicate with other computers using TCP / IP.
* Java.awt: Classes basis for applications with a user interface (GUI)
* Java.applet: Class basic application interface to be implemented in a web browser.

Excess Java Program
* Multiplatform. The major advantage of Java is to run on multiple platforms / operating system computer, in accordance with the principle of write once, run anywhere. With these advantages enough programmer to write a Java program and compile (modified, from a language understood by humans into machine language / bytecode) once and then the results can be run on multiple platforms without changes. This will allow a java-based program is done on the Linux operating system but run well on Microsoft Windows. Supported platforms to date are Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS and Sun Solaris. Penyebanya are each operating system uses its own program (which can be downloaded from the Java site) for the meninterpretasikan bytecode.

* OOP (Object Oriented Programming - Object Oriented Programmers) which means that all aspects are contained in the Java Objects. Java is a programming language based purely oebjek. All data types are derived from base class called Object. It is very easy programmers to design, create, develop and allocate fault a base for Java programs with fast, accurate, easy and organized. These advantages make Java as one of the easiest programming language, even for the advanced functions such as communication between the computer though.

* The Complete Class Library, Java is famous for its completeness library / library (a collection of programs that are included in java programming) is very easy in use by the programmers to build applications. Completeness of the library coupled with the existence of a large Java community that constantly create new libraries to cover all application development needs.

* Style C + +, a programming language syntax such as [C + +] and attracted a lot of C + + programmers moving to Java. Currently, users of Java very much, mostly C + + programmer who moved to Java. Universities in the United States also began to migrate to teach Java to the new students because it is more easily understood by students and can be useful also for those who are not majoring in computer.

* Automatic garbage collection, has a facility setting memory usage so that the programmer does not need to do direct memory settings (as in C + + which is widely used.)

Lack of Java programs

* Write once, fix it anywhere - There are still some things that are not compatible between platforms one with another platform. For J2SE, for example, SWT-AWT bridge that until now does not work on Mac OS X.

* Easy didekompilasi. Decompilation is the reverse process of the finished code into the source code. This is possible because Java is a bytecode koe so many attributes that store high-level languages, such as class names, methods, and data types. The same thing happened to Microsoft. NET Platform. Thus, the algorithms used will be more difficult to program and easy to hide hijacked / direverse-engineer.

* Use lots of memory. The use of memory for Java-based program is much greater than the previous generation of high-level languages like C / C + + and Pascal (more specifically, Delphi and Object Pascal). Usually this is not a problem for those who use the latest technology (as trends cheap built-in memory), but a problem for those who still have to stick with the engine computer for more than 4 years old.

Reference:
http://www.vavai.com/blog/index.php?/archives/587-Sejarah-Java.html
http://cybernetix.or.id/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=49:sejarah-perkembangan-java&catid=19:programming&Itemid=79
AQUA adalah pelopor industri air minum di Indonesia, semua orang pasti tahu itu. Namun, apakah anda mengetahui sejarah panjang jalan yang dirintis aqua hingga sebesar sekarang.

Aqua lahir atas ide almarhum Tirto Utomo (1930-1994). Beliau menggagas lahirnya industri air minum dalam kemasan (AMDK) di Indonesia melalui PT Golden Mississippi pada tanggal 23 Pebruari 1973.

 nama Aqua kini telah menjadi semacam nama generik dari produk Air Minum Dalam Kemasan (AMDK) serupa di Indonesia. Coba perhatikan sekitar kita, berapa banyak orang yang kita temui menyebut nama Aqua saat mereka hendak membeli AMDK di warung atau toko? Dan perhatikan juga, jarang sekali ada pembeli yang protes saat mereka diberi VIT, RON 88 atau ADES oleh si penjual walaupun sebelumnya mereka meminta �Beli Aqua satu..�

Hal itu mungkin sekali terjadi karena Aqua adalah pelopor bisnis AMDK dan menjadi produsen AMDK terbesar di Indonesia. Bahkan pangsa pasarnya sendiri saat ini sudah meliputi Singapura, Malaysia, Fiji, Australia, Timur Tengah dan Afrika. Di Indonesia sendiri mereka menguasai 80 persen penjualan AMDK dalam kemasan galon. Sedangkan untuk keseluruhan market share AMDK di Indonesia, Aqua menguasai 50% pasar. Saat ini Aqua memiliki 14 pabrik yang tersebar di Jawa dan Sumatra.

Produsen AMDK Aqua, PT. Golden Mississippi (kemudian bernama PT Aqua Golden Mississippi) yang bernaung di bawah PT. Tirta Investama (selanjutnya, dalam tulisan ini akan disebut sebagai Aqua saja, untuk mewakili korporasi produsen AMDK tersebut), didirikan pada 23 Februari 1973 oleh Tirto Utomo (1930-1994). Pabrik pertamanya didirikan di Bekasi. Sejak saat itu, orang Indonesia mulai mengubah salah satu kebiasaannya secara mendasar dengan membiasakan diri mengkonsumsi AMDK, membeli air.

Danone, sebuah korporasi multinasional asal Perancis, berambisi untuk memimpin pasar global lewat tiga bisnis intinya, yaitu: dairy products, AMDK dan biskuit. Untuk dairy products, kini Danone menempati posisi nomor satu di dunia dengan penguasaan pasar sebesar 15%. Adapun untuk produk AMDK, Danone juga mengklaim telah menempati peringkat pertama dunia lewat merek Evian, Volvic, dan Badoit. Untuk bisa mempertahankan diri sebagai produsen AMDK nomor satu dunia, Danone tentu saja harus berjuang keras menahan gempuran Coca-Cola dan Nestle.

Untuk menambah kekuatannya, Danone mulai memasuki pasar Asia, dan mengambil alih dua perusahaan AMDK di Cina. Menyadari kekuatan kecil Aqua yang belum terjamah oleh Coca-cola atau korporasi lainnya, Danone buru-buru mendekati Aqua. Akhirnya, pada tanggal 4 September 1998, Aqua secara resmi mengumumkan �penyatuan� kedua perusahaan tersebut dan bertepatan dengan pergantian milenium, pada tahun 2000 Aqua meluncurkan produk berlabel Danone-Aqua. Pada tahun 2001, Danone meningkatkan kepemilikan saham di PT. Tirta Investama dari 40% menjadi 74%, sehingga Danone kemudian menjadi pemegang saham mayoritas Grup Aqua.

Sejarah  Perusahaan Minuman Aqua secara sistematis :

1973
PT AQUA Golden Mississippi didirikan sebagai pioner perusahaan air minum mineral pertama di Indonesia. Pabrik pertama didirikan di Bekasi.

1974
Produksi pertama AQUA diluncurkan dalam bentuk kemasan botol kaca ukuran 950 ml dari pabrik di Bekasi. Harga per botol adalah Rp.75,-

1981
AQUA memutuskan untuk mengganti bahan baku yang semula dari sumur bor ke mata air pegunungan yang mengalir sendiri (self flowing spring).

1984
Pabrik AQUA kedua didirikan di Pandaan di Jawa Timur, sebagai upaya agar lebih mendekatkan diri pada konsumen yang berada di wilayah tersebut.

1985
Pengembangan produk AQUA dalam bentuk kemasan PET 220 ml. Pengembangan ini membuat produk AQUA menjadi lebih berkualitas dan lebih aman untuk dikonsumsi.

1993
Menyelenggarakan program AQUA Peduli (AQUA Cares), sebagai langkah pendauran ulang botol plastik AQUA menjadi materi plastik yang bisa dapat digunakan kembali.

1995
AQUA menjadi pabrik air mineral pertama yang menerapkan sistem produksi in line di pabrik Mekarsari. Pemrosesan air dan pembuatan kemasan AQUA dilakukan bersamaan. Hasil sistem in line ini adalah botol AQUA yang baru dibuat dapat segera diisi air bersih di ujung proses produksi., sehingga proses produksi menjadi lebih higienis

1998
Penyatuan AQUA dan grup DANONE pada tanggal 4 September 1998. Langkah ini berdampak pada peningkatan kualitas produk dan menempatkan AQUA sebagai produsen air mineral dalam kemasan (AMDK) yang terbesar di Indonesia.

2000
Bertepatan dengan pergantian milenium, AQUA meluncurkan produk berlabel Danone-AQUA.

2001
DANONE meningkatkan kepemilikan saham di PT Tirta Investama dari 40 % menjadi 74 %, sehingga DANONE kemudian menjadi pemegang saham mayoritas AQUA Group.
AQUA menghadirkan kemasan botol kaca baru 380 ml pada 1 November 2001.

2002
Banjir besar yang melanda Jakarta pada awal tahun menggerakkan perusahaan untuk membantu masyarakat dan juga para karyawan AQUA sendiri yang terkena musibah tersebut. AQUA menang telak di ajang Indonesian Best Brand Award. Mulai diberlakukannya Kesepakatan Kerja Bersama [KKB 2002 - 2004] pada 1 Juni

2003
Perluasan kegiatan produksi AQUA Group ditindaklanjuti melalui peresmian pabrik baru di Klaten pada awal tahun. Upaya mengintegrasikan proses kerja perusahaan melalui penerapan SAP [System Application and Products for Data Processing] dan HRIS [Human Resources Information System].

2004
Peluncuran logo baru AQUA. AQUA menghadirkan kemurnian alam baik isi maupun penampilan luarnya. AQUA meluncurkan varian baru AQUA Splash of Fruit, jenis air dalam kemasan yang diberi esens rasa buah strawberry dan orange-mango. Peluncuran produk ini memperkuat posisi AQUA sebagai produsen minuman.

2005
DANONE membantu korban tsunami di ACEH. Pada tanggal 27 sept, AQUA memproduksi MIZONE,minuman bernutrisi yang merupakan produk dari DANONE. MIZONE hadir dengan dua rasa, orange lime dan passion fruit.

Referensi :
http://www.kaskus.us/showthread.php?t=2848134
http://scylics.multiply.com/journal/item/176/Sejarah_AQUA

Senin, 07 Februari 2011

Kota Bukittinggi, Sumatra Barat adalah kota sejarah, kota tempat lahirnya tiga pahlawan besar Indonesia, dan juga kota dengan eksotisme wisata yang menawan. Bukittingggi memiliki semua kriteria untuk menjadi target wisata bagi para pengunjung.

Bukittinggi adalah salah satu kota yang diakui memiliki peran dan pengaruh dalam perjalanan sejarah Indonesia. Penulisan sejarah kota ini telah diusahakan oleh berbagai peneliti yang membahas aktifitas sosial ekonomi, politik. Sebagai bagian daerah darek di Sumatera Barat, kota ini mulai memiliki nilai lebih dan diutamakan sejak Belanda mulai aktif menekan pihak Paderi dimasa berkecamuknya Perang Paderi 1821-1837. Dan pada tahun 1888, Belanda mengusahakan perluasan kota ini, yang mencapai 75% dari daerah Kanagarian Kurai Limo Jorong.

Bukittinggi dalam kehidupan ketatanegaraan semenjak zaman penjajahan Belanda, zaman penjajahan Jepang serta zaman kemerdekaan dengan berbagai variasinya tetap merupakan pusat Pemerintahan Sumatera bahagian Tengah maupun Sumatera secara keseluruhan, bahkan Bukittinggi pernah berperan sebagai Pusat Pemerintahan Republik Indonesia setela Yogyajarta diduduki Belanda dari bulan Desember 1948 sampai dengan bulan Juni 1949.

Semasa pemerintahan Belanda dahulu, Bukittinggi oleh Belanda selalu ditingkatkan perannya dalam ketatanegaraan, dari apa yang dinamakanGemetelyk Resort berdasarkan Stbl tahun 1828. Belanda telah mendirikan kubu pertahanannya tahun 1825, yang sampai sekarang kubu pertahanan tersebut masih dikenal dengan Benteng " Fort De Kock ". Kota ini telah digunakan juga oleh Belanda sebagai tempat peristirahatan opsir-opsir yang berada di wilayah jajahannya di timur ini.

Oleh pemerintah Jepang, Bukittinggi dijadikan sebagai pusat pengendalian Pemerintah militernya untuk kawasan Sumatera, bahkan sampai ke Singapura dan Thailand karena disini berkedudukan komandan Milioter ke 25. Pada masa ini Bukittinggi berganti nama dari Taddsgemente Fort de Kock menjadi Bukittinggi Si Yaku Sho yang daerahnya diperluas dengan memasukkan nagari-nagari Sianok, Gadut, Kapau, Ampang Gadang, Batu taba dan Bukit Batabuah yang sekarang kesemuanya itu kini berada dalam daerah Kabupaten Agam, di Kota ini pulalah Pemerintah bala tebtara Jepang mendirikan pemancar Radio terbesar untuk pulau Sumatera dalam rangka mengibarkan semangat rakyat untuk menunjang kepentingan peramg Asia Timur Raya versi Jepang.

Pada zaman perjuangan Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia Bukitinggi berperan sebagai kota perjuangan. Dari bulan Desember 1948 sampai dengan bulan Juni 1949 ditunjuk sebagai Ibu Kota Pemerintahan darurat Republik Indonesia ( PDRI ), setelah Yogyakarta jatuh ke tangan Belanda.

Selanjutnya Bukittinggi pernah menjadi Ibukota Propinsi Sumatera dengan Gubernurnya Mr. Tengku Muhammad Hasan. Kemudian dalam peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti undang-undang No. 4 tahun 1959 Bukittinggi ditetapkan sebagai Ibu Kota Sumatera Tengah yang meliputi keresidenan-keresidenan Sumatera Barat, Jambi dan Riau yang sekarang masing-masing Keresidenan itu telah menjadi Propinsi-propinsi sendiri.

Setelah keresidenan Sumatera Barat dikembangkan menjadi Propinsi Sumatera Barat, maka Bukittinggi ditunjuk sebagai Ibu Kota Propinsinya,. semenjak tahun 1958 secara defacto Ibukota Propinsi telah pindah ke Padangnamun secara deyuire barulah tahun 1978 Bukittinggi tidak lagi menjadi Ibukota Propinsi Sumatera Barat, dengan keluarnya Peraturan Pemerintah No. 29 tahun 1979 yang memindahkan Ibukota Propinsi Sumatera Barat ke Padang.

Sekarang ini Bukittinggi berstatus sebagai kota madya Daerah Tingkat II sesuai dengan undang-undang No. 5 tahun 1974 tentang Pokok Pemerintah di Daerah yang telah disempurnakan dengan UU NO. 22/99menjadi Kota Bukittinggi.

Secara ringkas perkembangan Kota Bukittinggi dapat dilihat sebagai berikut :
A. Pada Masa Penjajahan Belanda
Semula sebagaiGeemente Fort De Kock dan kemudian menjadi Staadgemente Fort De Kock, sebagaimana diatur dalam Staadblad No. 358 tahun 1938 yang luas wilayahnya sama dengan wilayah Kota Bukittinggi sekarang.

B. Pada Masa Penjajahan Jepang
Pada masa ini Bukittinggi bernama Shi Yaku Sho yang wilayahnya lebih luas dari Kota Bukittingggi sekarang ditambah dengan nagari-nagari Sianok, Gadit, Ampang Gadang, BAtu taba dan Bukit Batabuah.

C. Pada Masa Kemerdekaan Sampai Sekarang
  1. Pada masa permulaan proklamasi, luas wilayah Bukittinggi sama seperti sekarang ini dengan Waliktanya yang pertama yaitu Bermawi Sutan Rajo Ameh.
  2. Kota Bukittinggi dengan ketetapan Gubernur Propinsi Sumatera No. 391 tanggal 9 Juni 1947 tentang pembentukan Kota Bukittinggi sebagai Kota yang berhak mengatur dirinya sendiri.
  3. Kota Besar Bukittinggi sebagaimana yang diatur Undang-undang No. 9 tahun 1956 tentang Pembentukan Otonom Kota Besar Bukittinggi dalam lingkungan Propinsi Sumatera Tengah jo Undang-undang Pokok tentang Pemerintah Daerah No. 22 tahun1960.
  4. Kotapraja Bukittinggi, sebagaimana diatur dalam Undang-undang Pemerintah Daerah No. 1 tahun 1957 jo. Pen. Prs. No. 6 tahun 1959 jo. Pen. prs. No. 5 tahun 1960.
  5. Kotamadya Bukittinggi sebagai mana diatur dalam Undang-undang No. 5 tahun 1974 tentang Pokok-pokok Pemerintah Daerah.
Pimpinan Pemerintah Daerah, baik sebagai pejabat senentara ( Pjs ) atau sebagai pejabat (Pj), maupun sebagai Walikota Pilihan (KDH) dapat diterakan sebagai berikut :
1. Bermawi Sutan RAjo Ameh
2. Iskandar Teja KUsuma
3. Jamin Dt. BAgindo
4. Aziz Karim
5. Enin Karim
6. Saadudin Jambek
7. Nauman Jamil Dt. Mangkuto Ameh
8. MB. Dt. Majo Basa Nan Kuning
9. Syahbuddin LAtif Dt. Sibungsu
10. Dr. S. Rivai
11. Bahar Kamil Marah Sutan
12. Anwar Maksum Marah Sutan
13. M. Asril, SH
14. A. Kamal, SH
15. Drs. Masri
16. Drs. Oemar Gaffar
17. Drs. B. Barhanudin
18. Drs. Hasan Basri ( PLT. Walikota )
19. Armedi Agus
20. Drs. Rusdi Lubis ( PLT Walikota )
21. Drs. H. Djufri
22. Drs. H. Oktisir Sjovijerli Osir ( PLT. Walikota )
23. Drs. H. Djufri ( Sampai sekarang )

Dengan bermacam ragamnya status maupun fungsi yang diemban Bukittinggi seperti yang diuraikan diatas, kita dapat menarik kesimpulan bahwa Bukittinggi memang cukup strategis letaknya dan ditunjang pula oleh hawanya yang sejuk, karenaterletak di jajaran Bukit Barisan.

Dilihat dari segi sosial kemasyarakatan, Bukitinggi tidak kurang pula perannya, baik dalam ukuran regional, Nasiopnal mupun Internasional. Dikota ini sering diadakan rapat-rapat kerja Pemerintah, Pertemuan-pertemuan ilmiah, kongres-kongres oleh organisasi kemasyarakatan dan lain sebagainya.

Referensi :
http://arisaskowigi.blogspot.com/2007/11/sejarah-pembentukan-bukittinggi.html
http://disbudparkotabukittinggi.indonesiatravel.biz/2009/05/27/sejarah-kebun-binatang-bukittinggi/
Lampu pijar adalah sumber cahaya buatan yang dihasilkan melalui penyaluran arus listrik melalui filamen yang kemudian memanas dan menghasilkan cahaya.Kaca yang menyelubungi filamen panas tersebut menghalangi udara untuk berhubungan dengannya sehingga filamen tidak akan langsung rusak akibat teroksidasi.

Lampu pijar dipasarkan dalam berbagai macam bentuk dan tersedia untuk tegangan (voltase) kerja yang bervariasi dari mulai 1,25 volt hingga 300 volt.Energi listrik yang diperlukan lampu pijar untuk menghasilkan cahaya yang terang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan sumber cahaya buatan lainnya seperti lampu pendar dan dioda cahaya, maka secara bertahap pada beberapa negara peredaran lampu pijar mulai dibatasi.

Di samping memanfaatkan cahaya yang dihasilkan, beberapa penggunaan lampu pijar lebih memanfaatkan panas yang dihasilkan, contohnya adalah pemanas kandang ayam, dan pemanas inframerah dalam proses pemanasan di bidang industri.

Sejarah lampu Pijar dan Penemu Pertama

Edison mematenkan penemuannya pada 1879. Ide lampu sebenarnya sudah berusia 70 tahun sebelum Edison mematenkannya. Sir Humpry Davy adalah orang pertama yang mendemonstrasikan dua batang karbon yang memercikkan cahaya. Hanya saja, cahaya yang dihasilkan terlalu terang, seperti percikan cahaya saat mengelas besi. Selain itu, lampu ini membutuhkan sumber listrik yang terlalu besar. Lampu Davy masih bisa Anda lihat saat ini di konser musik atau pembukaan toko baru yang meriah.

Kompetisi Menemukan Lampu

Banyak ilmuwan tertarik pada penemuan Davy. Mereka berusaha memecah cahaya yang terlalu terang itu. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan mengalirkannya melalui suatu material. Hanya saja, material tersebut akan termakan oleh listrik yang berpijar. Untuk mengatasinya maka perlu membatasi kontak antara listrik pijar dengan oksigen. Di situlah muncul ide untuk mengurungnya dalam bola.


Pada 1841, Frederick DeMoleyns mematenkan bohlam yang terbuat dari campuran platina dan karbon. Empat tahun berikutnya, J.W. Starr mematenkan bohlam vakum dengan bahan pembakar karbon. Kemudian, banyak orang berusaha memvakum bohlam menggunakan material lain, kadang dengan bentuk yang berbeda. Penemuan mereka berhasil di laboratorium tetapi tidak bisa digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.

Pada 1878, Thomas Alva Edison bergabung dalam kompetisi pembuatan bohlam yang efektif dan efisien. Sebelumnya, Edison sudah terkenal sebagai penemu telegraf dan fonograf. Pada Oktober, dia mengumumkan bahwa dia sudah mampu mengatasi permasalahan bohlam.

Pengumuman itu terlalu dini, Edison memang sudah punya gagasannya, tetapi dia belum sempat menyempurnakannya. Bicara memang lebih mudah ketimbang melakukannya. Itulah yang terjadi. Dalam usaha menyempurnakan gagasannya, Edison gagal terus.

Francis Upton

Edison mengajak Francis Upton, dari Universitas Princeton, bergabung dalam penelitiannya. Mereka mulai mendaftar percobaan gagal yang dilakukan orang lain dan menghindari cara-cara tersebut. Mereka juga mendaftar sifat-sifat material yang telah digunakan dan mencari material yang tepat. Mereka menemukan bahwa pembakar yang tepat adalah material yang memiliki hambatan besar. Material dengan hambatan besar tidak menghabiskan banyak listrik. Mereka mulai menyeleksi semua material yang memiliki hambatan besar.

Bohlam Pertama

Pada Oktober 1879, setahun setelah pengumuman gagasannya, Edison menggunakan kapas yang dikarbonasi sebagai pembakar. Lampu itu menyala, tetapi hanya mampu bertahan 13 jam. Itulah lampu yang diklaim sebagai bohlam pertama.

Dalam pengembangannya, Edison menemukan bahwa bambu Jepang yang dikarbonasi merupakan material yang paling tepat sebagai pembakar. Material ini kemudian dikenal sebagai filamen. Bohlam yang menggunakan filamen bertahan sampai 600 jam.

Jawaban "Thomas Alva Edison" sebagai penemu bohlam tidak sepenuhnya tepat karena sudah banyak orang yang menemukan bohlam. Hanya saja, Edison menemukan bohlam yang bisa digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari dengan konsumsi listrik yang efisien.

Referensi :
http://www.anneahira.com/sejarah-lampu.htm
http://history-our.blogspot.com/2011/01/sejarah-lampu-pijar.html

Kamis, 03 Februari 2011

Bola basket adalah olahraga bola berkelompok yang terdiri atas dua tim beranggotakan masing-masing lima orang yang saling bertanding mencetak poin dengan memasukkan bola ke dalam keranjang lawan. Bola basket sangat cocok untuk ditonton karena biasa dimainkan di ruang olahraga tertutup dan hanya memerlukan lapangan yang relatif kecil. Selain itu, bola basket mudah dipelajari karena bentuk bolanya yang besar, sehingga tidak menyulitkan pemain ketika memantulkan atau melempar bola tersebut.

Bola basket salah satu olahraga yang paling digemari oleh penduduk Amerika Serikat dan penduduk di belahan bumi lainnya, antara lain di Amerika Selatan, Eropa Selatan, Lithuania, dan juga di Indonesia.

Sejarah Olahraga Bola Basket dan Perkembangannya
Permainan bola basket diciptakan oleh Prof. Dr. James A. Naismith salah seorang guru pendidikan jasmani Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) Springfield, Massachusets, Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1891. Gagasan yang mendorong terwujudnya cabang olahragabaru ini ialah adanya kenyataan bahwa waktu itu keanggotaan dan pengunjung sekolah tersebut kian hari kian merosot. Sebab utamanya adalah rasa bosan dari para anggota dalam mengikuti latihan olahraga Senam yang gerakannya kaku. Di samping itu kebutuhan yang dirasakan pada musim dingin untuk tetap melakukan olahraga yang menarik semakin mendesak.

Dr. Luther Gullick, pengawas kepala bagian olahraga pada sekolah tersebut menyadari adanya gejala yang kurang baik itu dan segera menghubungi Prof. Dr. James A. Naismith serta memberi tugas kepadanya untuk menyusun suatu kegiatan olahraga yang baru yang dapat dimainkan di ruang tertutup pada sore hari.

Dalam menyambut tugasnya itu Nasimith menyusun suatu gagasan yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan ruang tertutup yakni permainan yang tidak begitu keras, tidak ada unsur menendan, menjegal dan menarik serta tidak sukar dipelajari. Langkah pertama, diujinya gubahan dari permainan Footbal, Baseball, Lacrose dan Sepakbola. Tetapi tidak satupun yang cocok dengan tuntutannya. Sebab disamping sulit dipelajari, juga permainan tersebut masih terlalu keras untuk dimainkan di ruangan tertutup yang berlampu.

Dari hasil percobaan yang dilakukan itu Naismith akhrinya sampai pada kesimpulan bahwa permainan yang baru itu harus mempergunakan bola yang bentuknya bulat, tidak menjegal, dan harus menghilangkan gawang sebagai sasarannya. Untuk menjinakkan bola sebagai pengganti menendang dilakukan gerakan mengoper dengan tangan serta menggiring bola (dribbling) sebagai puncak kegairahan, gawang diganti dengan sasaran lain yang sempit dan terletak di atas para pemain, sehingga dengan obyek sasaran yang demikian pengutamaan tembakan tidak terletak pada kekuatan seperti yang terjadi pada waktu menendang, melainkan pada ketepatan menembak.

Semula Naismith akan menggunakan kotak kayu untuk sasaran tembakan tersebut, tetapi berhubung waktu percobaan dilakukan yang ada hanya keranjang (basket) buah persik yang kosong, maka akhirnya keranjang itulah dijadikan sasaran tembakan. Dari perkataan basket ini kemudian permainan baru yang ditemukan Prof. Dr. James A. Naismith tersebut dinamakan Basketball.

Perkembangan Bola Basket di Indonesia
Di tengah-tengah gejolak revolusi bangsa dalam mempertahankan kemerdekaan yang telah direbut itu, permainan Bola Basket mulai dikenal oleh sebagian kecil rakyat Indonesia, khususnya yang berada di kota perjuangan dan pusat pemerintahan Rakyat Indonesia, Yogyakarta serta kota terdekat Solo. Nampaknya, ancaman pedang dan dentuman meriam penjajah tidak menjadi penghalang bagi bangsa Indonesia untuk melakukan kegiatan olahraga, termasuk permainan Bola Basket.

Bahkan dengan dilakukannya kegiatan-kegiatan olahraga tersebut semangat juang bangsa Indonesia untuk mempertahankan tanah airnya dari ancaman para penjajah yang menginginkan kembali berkuasa semakin membaja. Terbukti pada bulan September 1948, di kota Solo diselenggarakan Pekan Olahraga Nasional (PON) Pertama yang mempertandingkan beberapa cabang olahraga, diantaranya Bola Basket. Dalam kegiatan tersebut ikut serta beberapa regu, antara lain : PORO Solo, PORI Yogyakarta dan Akademi Olahraga Sarangan.

Referensi :
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bola_basket
http://de-kill.blogspot.com/2009/04/sejarah-permainan-basket.html

Selasa, 01 Februari 2011

Piala Asia AFC (AFC Asian Cup) adalah turnamen sepak bola yang diselenggarakan oleh Konfederasi Sepak Bola Asia (AFC). Tim nasional pemenang adalah juara Asia dan langsung lolos untuk mengikuti Piala Konfederasi FIFA.

Piala Asia diadakan 4 tahun sekali sejak 1956 hingga 2004. Karena Olimpiade Musim Panas dan Kejuaraan Sepak Bola Eropa juga diselenggarakan pada tahun yang sama dengan Piala Asia (2004, 2008, 2012, dst.), AFC akhirnya memutuskan untuk memindahkan siklus penyelenggaraan turnamen ini ke tahun yang lebih sepi. Setelah 2004, Piala Asia berikutnya diselenggarakan pada 2007, dan setelah itu kembali diadakan setiap 4 tahun sekali.

Daftar Juara Piala Asia
2011 Jepang
2007 Iraq
2004 Jepang
2000 Jepang
1996 Arab Saudi
1992 Jepang
1988 Arab Saudi
1984 Arab Saudi
1980 Kuwait
1976 Iran
1972 Iran
1968 Iran
1964 Israel
1960 Korea Selatan
1956 Korea Selatan